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da Cunha Nascimento D.,Catholic University of Brasilia | da Cunha Nascimento D.,Centro Universitario | de Sousa N.M.F.,Laboratory of Exercise Physiology | de Sousa Neto I.V.,Catholic University of Brasilia | And 10 more authors.
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2015

Background: Obesity, defined by an excess amount of body fat or a percent body fat higher than 30 % for women is a complex chronic disorder with multifactorial etiology and is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, which results in elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare muscle strength between high and low pro-inflammatory status in obese elderly women and to verify the relationship of IL-6 with muscle strength and fat-free mass. Methods: Eighty-nine elderly women (age 69.47 ± 6.07 years; body mass 64.70 ± 12.04 kg; height 1.52 ± 0.06 m; body mass index 27.78 ± 4.75 kg/m2) were divided into two groups: high and low inflammatory status for IL-6. Lower limb muscle strength was tested using bilateral leg extension with the ten repetitions maximum test, IL-6 was measured by ELISA and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Women classified from the high pro-inflammatory status presented lower relative muscle strength (P = 0.056) when compared with the low inflammatory status group, with no differences for absolute muscle strength (P = 0.18). There was a significant negative correlation of IL-6 with relative muscle strength (P = 0.03, R = −0.22) and a considerable trend toward significance (P = 0.06, R = −0.19) and negative association with fat-free mass (P = 0.84, R = −0.02). Conclusions: This study provides insights that a high pro-inflammatory status in sedentary obese elderly women might impair muscle strength and negatively affect fat-free mass. Thus, elderly women classified with high pro-inflammatory status for IL-6 should receive further health care attention to prevent this deleterious condition. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Tibana R.A.,Catholic University of Brasilia | Da Cunha Nascimento D.,Catholic University of Brasilia | De Sousa N.M.F.,Laboratory of Exercise Physiology | De Souza V.C.,Catholic University of Brasilia | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

These data describe the effects of combined aerobic plus resistance training (CT) with regards to risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS), quality of life, functional capacity, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in women with MetS. In this context, thirteen women (35.4±6.2 yr) completed 10 weeks of CT consisting of three weekly sessions of ∼60 min aerobic training (treadmill at 65-70% of reserve heart rate, 30 min) and resistance training (3 sets of 8-12 repetitions maximum for main muscle groups). Dependent variables were maximum chest press strength; isometric hand-grip strength; 30 s chair stand test; six minute walk test; body mass; body mass index; body adiposity index; waist circumference; systolic (SBP), diastolic and mean blood pressure (MBP); blood glucose; HDL-C; triglycerides; interleukins (IL) 6, 10 and 12, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and serum nitric oxide metabolite (NOx); quality of life (SF-36) and Z-Score of MetS. There was an improvement in muscle strength on chest press (p = 0.009), isometric hand-grip strength (p = 0.03) and 30 s chair stand (p = 0.007). There was a decrease in SBP (p = 0.049), MBP (p = 0.041), Z-Score of MetS (p = 0.046), OPG (0.42±0.26 to 0.38±0.19 ng/mL, p<0.05) and NOx (13.3± 2.3 μmol/L to 9.1±2.3 μmol/L; p<0.0005). IL-10 displayed an increase (13.6±7.5 to 17.2±12.3 pg/mL, p<0.05) after 10 weeks of training. Combined training also increased the perception of physical capacity (p = 0.011). This study endorses CT as an efficient tool to improve blood pressure, functional capacity, quality of life and reduce blood markers of inflammation, which has a clinical relevance in the prevention and treatment of MetS. © 2014 PLOS ONE.

Faoro V.,Laboratory of Exercise Physiology | Huez S.,Erasme University Hospital | Vanderpool R.,Free University of Colombia | Groepenhoff H.,VU University Amsterdam | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2014

Tibetans have been reported to present with a unique phenotypic adaptation to high altitude characterized by higher resting ventilation and arterial oxygen saturation, no excessive polycythemia, and lower pulmonary arterial pressures (Ppa) compared with other high-Altitude populations. How this affects exercise capacity is not exactly known. We measured aerobic exercise capacity during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test, lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) at rest, and mean Ppa (mPpa) and cardiac output by echocardiography at rest and at exercise in 13 Sherpas and in 13 acclimatized lowlander controls at the altitude of 5,050 m in Nepal. In Sherpas vs. lowlanders, arterial oxygen saturation was 86 ± 1 vs. 83 ± 2% (mean ± SE; P = nonsignificant), mPpa at rest 19 ± 1 vs. 23 ± 1 mmHg (P < 0.05), DLCO corrected for hemoglobin 61 ± 4 vs. 37 ± 2 ml·min-1·mmHg-1 (P < 0.001), DLNO 226 ± 18 vs. 153 ± 9 ml·min -1·mmHg-1 (P < 0.001), maximum oxygen uptake 32 ± 3 vs. 28 ± 1 ml·kg-1·min-1 (P = nonsignificant), and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide at anaerobic threshold 40 ± 2 vs. 48 ± 2 (P < 0.001). Maximum oxygen uptake was correlated directly to DLCO and inversely to the slope of mPpa-cardiac index relationships in both Sherpas and acclimatized lowlanders. We conclude that Sherpas compared with acclimatized lowlanders have an unremarkable aerobic exercise capacity, but with less pronounced pulmonary hypertension, lower ventilatory responses, and higher lung diffusing capacity. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

Fonseca T.R.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Botelho F.V.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Botelho F.V.,Federal University of Uberlandia | De Lima D.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Exercise Physiology Online | Year: 2011

This study evaluated the effects of 6 weeks of swimming on lipid metabolism, oxidation resistance, and atherosclerosis in 6-week-old female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE -/-). The mice were divided into a control group (n=7) and a treatment group (n=7). Mice in the treatment group were required to swim 10 min·d -1, 5 d·wk -1 for 6 weeks (which was increased by 10 min·d -1 until the mice swam continuously for 1 hr). Plasma total cholesterol was evaluated before and after the experiment. Liver and fecal lipids, lipid oxidation resistance, and atherosclerotic area of thoracic and abdominal aorta were evaluated after euthanasia. Body weight, lipid metabolism, and lipid oxidation resistance were similar in both groups. Relative index was statistically decreased in the experimental group, thus suggesting that the apoE -/- mice that underwent the swimming exercise exhibited decreased atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta. However, the decrease was not due to changes in lipid metabolism or lipid oxidation resistance profile.

Ueda D.,Bunkyo University | Min S.-K.,Laboratory of Exercise Physiology | Nakazato K.,Laboratory of Exercise Physiology | Igawa S.,Nippon Sport Science University
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2013

Purpose: To examine the relationship between ACTN3 polymorphisms and level of athletic performance in Japanese wrestlers. Methods: The control group consisted of 243 healthy Japanese individuals. The authors divided 135 wrestlers into 3 groups based on their results in national or international competitions. They classified as elite 24 wrestlers who had placed in the top 8 in a world championship or participated in Olympic games, 28 wrestlers who had participated in world championships or become champions in Japan's national championships were classified as subelite, and 83 wrestlers were classified as national (N-W, ie, national-level wrestler). In addition, the authors combined the elite and subelite to form the classification international-level wrestlers (I-W). Results: The frequency of the null X allele and the XX genotype were significantly lower in the I-W group than in the control group. However, there was no significant difference in ACTN3 genotype or allele frequency between the N-W and control groups. The frequency of the ACTN3 XX genotype in the elite groups was lower than that of all groups, and a linear tendency was observed between ACTN3 XX genotype and athletic status. Conclusions: In conclusion, the data indicated that ACTN3 polymorphisms were related to athletic performance in Japanese wrestlers. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

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