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Mellado M.,Laboratory of Epithelial Cell Biology Principe Felipe Research Center Valencia 46012 Spain | Cuartero Y.,Laboratory of Epithelial Cell Biology Principe Felipe Research Center Valencia 46012 Spain | Brugada R.,University of Girona | Verges M.,University of Girona
Biology of the Cell | Year: 2014

Background information: Retromer is required for endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR), allowing delivery of hydrolases into lysosomes. It is constituted by a conserved heterotrimer formed by vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) gene products Vps26, Vps35 and Vps29, which is in charge of cargo selection, and a dimer of phosphoinositide-binding sorting nexins (SNXs), which has a structural role. Retromer has been implicated in sorting of additional cargo. Thus, retromer also promotes polymeric immunoglobulin A (pIgA) transcytosis by the pIgA receptor (pIgR) in polarised cells, and considerable evidence implicates retromer in controlling epithelial cell polarity. However, the precise localisation of retromer along the endocytic pathway of polarised cells has not been studied in detail. Results: Our biochemical analysis using rat liver endosome fractions suggests a distinct distribution pattern. Although subunits of the cargo-selective complex were enriched in early endosomes (EEs), levels of SNX2 were greater in sorting endosomes. We then immunolocalised the retromer subunits in polarised Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by confocal microscopy. An estimated 25% of total Vps26 and SNX2 localised to EEs, with negligible portions in recycling endosomes as well as in late endosomes and lysosomes. Although Vps26 was in structures of more heterogeneous size and shape than SNX2, these markedly overlapped. In consequence, the two retromer subcomplexes mostly colocalised. When we analysed retromer overlap with its cargo, we found that structures retromer and pIgA+ are independent of those structures retromer and CI-MPR+. Remarkably, retromer localised preferentially at the transcytotic pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase affected the co-distribution of retromer with pIgA and the CI-MPR, delaying pIgA progress to the apical surface. Conclusions: In polarised MDCK cells, we found retromer associated with certain specialised EE-derived pathways. Our data imply that retromer is largely engaged in pIgA transcytosis in pIgR-expressing MDCK cells, as opposed to endosome-to-Golgi retrieval. © 2014 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France.

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