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Faria D.C.,Sapucai Valley University | Dias A.C.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Melo I.S.,Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology | de Carvalho Costa F.E.,National Institute of Communications of Brazil
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Twelve endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristem of in vitro Cymbidium eburneum orchid, and screened according to indole yield quantified by colorimetric assay, in vitro phosphate solubilization, and potential for plant growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. Eight strains with positive results were classified into the genus Paenibacillus by FAME profile, and evaluated for their ability to increase survival and promote the growth of in vitro germinated Cattleya loddigesii seedlings during the acclimatization process. The obtained results showed that all strains produced detectable indole levels and did not exhibit potential for solubilizing inorganic phosphate. Particularly, an increase of the total biomass and number of leaves was observed. Two strains of Paenibacillus macerans promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions. None of the treatments had a deleterious effect on growth of inoculated plants. These results suggest that these bacterial effects could be potentially useful to promote plant growth during seedling acclimatization in orchid species other than the species of origin. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Mendes R.,Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology | Garbeva P.,Netherlands Institute of Ecology | Raaijmakers J.M.,Wageningen University
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2013

Microbial communities play a pivotal role in the functioning of plants by influencing their physiology and development. While many members of the rhizosphere microbiome are beneficial to plant growth, also plant pathogenic microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere striving to break through the protective microbial shield and to overcome the innate plant defense mechanisms in order to cause disease. A third group of microorganisms that can be found in the rhizosphere are the true and opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria, which can be carried on or in plant tissue and may cause disease when introduced into debilitated humans. Although the importance of the rhizosphere microbiome for plant growth has been widely recognized, for the vast majority of rhizosphere microorganisms no knowledge exists. To enhance plant growth and health, it is essential to know which microorganism is present in the rhizosphere microbiome and what they are doing. Here, we review the main functions of rhizosphere microorganisms and how they impact on health and disease. We discuss the mechanisms involved in the multitrophic interactions and chemical dialogues that occur in the rhizosphere. Finally, we highlight several strategies to redirect or reshape the rhizosphere microbiome in favor of microorganisms that are beneficial to plant growth and health. In this review, we focus on the frequency, diversity and activities of beneficial ('the good'), plant pathogenic ('the bad') and human pathogenic ('the ugly') microorganisms in the rhizosphere and how they impact on health and disease. Specific attention is given to mechanisms involved in multitrophic interactions and chemical dialogues that occur in the rhizosphere. Finally, we discuss strategies to re-direct or re-shape the rhizosphere microbiome in favour of those microbes that are beneficial to plant growth and health. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Source

Varon-Lopez M.,University of Sao Paulo | Varon-Lopez M.,Netherlands Institute of Ecology | Dias A.C.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Fasanella C.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of sulphur-oxidizing (SOB) and sulphate-reducing (SRB) bacteria in sediments from three Brazilian mangrove communities: two contaminated, one with oil (OilMgv) and one with urban waste and sludge (AntMgv), and one pristine (PrsMgv). The community structures were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and clone libraries, using genes for the enzymes adenosine-5′-phosphosulphate reductase (aprA) and sulphite reductase (Dsr) (dsrB). The abundance for qPCR showed the ratio dsrB/aprA to be variable among mangroves and higher according to the gradient observed for oil contamination in the OilMgv. The PCR-DGGE patterns analysed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling revealed differences among the structures of the three mangrove communities. The clone libraries showed that Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant groups associated with sulphur cycling in mangrove sediments. We conclude that the microbial SOB and SRB communities in mangrove soils are different in each mangrove forest and that such microbial communities could possibly be used as a proxy for contamination in mangrove forests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology. Source

De Souza Sebastianes F.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Romao-Dumaresq A.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Lacava P.T.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Harakava R.,Instituto Biologico | And 3 more authors.
Current Genetics | Year: 2013

This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of the diversity of endophytic fungal communities isolated from the leaves and branches of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa trees inhabiting two mangroves in the state of São Paulo, Brazil [Cananeia and Bertioga (oil spill-affected and unaffected)] in the summer and winter. Three hundred and forty-three fungi were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. Differences were observed in the frequencies of fungi isolated from the leaves and branches of these three different plant species sampled from the Bertioga oil spill-affected and the oil-unaffected mangrove sites in the summer and winter; these differences indicate a potential impact on fungal diversity in the study area due to the oil spill. The molecular identification of the fungi showed that the fungal community associated with these mangroves is composed of at least 34 different genera, the most frequent of which were Diaporthe, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Xylaria. The Shannon and the Chao1 indices [H′(95 %) = 4.00, H′(97 %) = 4.22, Chao1(95 %) = 204 and Chao1(97 %) = 603] indicated that the mangrove fungal community possesses a vast diversity and richness of endophytic fungi. The data generated in this study revealed a large reservoir of fungal genetic diversity inhabiting these Brazilian mangrove forests and highlighted substantial differences between the fungal communities associated with distinct plant tissues, plant species, impacted sites and sampling seasons. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Alvarenga D.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Rigonato J.,University of Sao Paulo | Branco L.H.Z.,Sao Paulo State University | Melo I.S.,Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology | Fiore M.F.,University of Sao Paulo
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2016

Cyanobacteria dwelling on the salt-excreting leaves of the mangrove tree Avicennia schaueriana were isolated and characterized by ecological, morphological and genetic approaches. Leaves were collected in a mangrove with a history of oil contamination on the coastline of São Paulo state, Brazil, and isolation was achieved by smearing leaves on the surface of solid media or by submerging leaves in liquid media. Twenty-nine isolated strains were shown to belong to five cyanobacterial orders (thirteen to Synechococcales, seven to Nostocales, seven to Pleurocapsales, one to Chroococcales, and one to Oscillatoriales) according to morphological and 16S rRNA gene sequence evaluations. More detailed investigations pointed six Rivulariacean and four Xenococcacean strains as novel taxa. These strains were classified as Phyllonema gen. nov. (type species Phyllonema aviceniicola sp. nov. with type strain CENA341T) and Foliisarcina gen. nov. (type species Foliisarcina bertiogensis sp. nov. with type strain CENA333T), according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants. This investigation shows some of the unique cyanobacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of Avicennia schaueriana can be retrieved by culturing techniques, improving current taxonomy and providing new insights into the evolution, ecology, and biogeography of this phylum. © 2015 IUMS. Source

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