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Florenly,Prima University of Indonesia | Fachrial E.,Prima University of Indonesia | Zein R.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2016

The present study investigated the effect of Cr(VI) in the kidneys of experimental rats and the protective effect of Dimocarpuslongan peel fruit as renal protector. Administration of 1 mLCr(VI) 1000 mg/L in experimental rats intraperitoneally increased all the biochemical parameters that were observed, including: MDA, urea, creatinine, SGOT and SGPT. Histologically, administration of Cr(VI) leads to swelling of tubule and severe necrosis in kidney. Pre-treatment with D.longan peel fruit antidote reduced the levels of biochemical parameters and oxidative stress parameters. The decreased levels of MDA, urea, creatinine, SGOT and SGPT were 51, 74%; 30,26%; 31,37%; 26,74% and 67,19% respectively. The pre-treatment with D.longan peel fruit also reduced the damage in kidney tissue, although there was still swelling in the tubules.


Girones R.,University of Barcelona | Girones R.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Carratala A.,University of Barcelona | Carratala A.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Water and Health | Year: 2014

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and has been recognized as a common source of large waterborne outbreaks involving contaminated water in developing countries. Thus, there is the need to produce experimental data on the disinfection kinetics of HEV by chlorine in water samples with diverse levels of fecal contamination. Here, the inactivation of HEV and human adenovirus C serotype 2 (HAdV2), used as a reference virus, was monitored using immunofluorescence and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays. HEV has been shown to be susceptible to chlorine disinfection and presented equivalent kinetics to human adenoviruses. The C(t ) values observed for a 2-log reduction of HEV were 0.41 in buffered demand-free water and 11.21 mg/L x min in the presence of 1% sewage. The results indicate that the inactivation kinetics of HEV and HAdV2 are equivalent and support the use of chlorine disinfection as an effective strategy to control HEV waterborne transmission. © IWA Publishing 2014 Journal.


Vinceti M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bonvicini F.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bonvicini F.,Local Health Unit of Reggio Emilia | Rothman K.J.,RTI Health Solutions | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2010

Background. A community in northern Italy was previously reported to have an excess incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among residents exposed to high levels of inorganic selenium in their drinking water. Methods. To assess the extent to which such association persisted in the decade following its initial observation, we conducted a population-based case-control study encompassing forty-one newly-diagnosed cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and eighty-two age- and sex-matched controls. We measured long-term intake of inorganic selenium along with other potentially neurotoxic trace elements. Results. We found that consumption of drinking water containing 1 g/l of inorganic selenium was associated with a relative risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of 5.4 (95% confidence interval 1.1-26) after adjustment for confounding factors. Greater amounts of cumulative inorganic selenium intake were associated with progressively increasing effects, with a relative risk of 2.1 (95% confidence interval 0.5-9.1) for intermediate levels of cumulative intake and 6.4 (95% confidence interval 1.3-31) for high intake. Conclusion. Based on these results, coupled with other epidemiologic data and with findings from animal studies that show specific toxicity of the trace element on motor neurons, we hypothesize that dietary intake of inorganic selenium through drinking water increases the risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2010 Vinceti et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Takenaka N.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Takahashi I.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Suekane H.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Yamamoto K.,Osaka Prefecture University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2011

A reaction of ammonium nitrite in ice was investigated. Upon freezing, some nitrite is oxidized by dissolved oxygen and some nitrite reacts with ammonium to produce nitrogen and water in a denitrification reaction. The former reaction was accelerated only during freezing, and the latter one was accelerated even after the whole sample was frozen. The denitrification reaction proceeded at very low concentration in ice, which were conditions under which the reaction would not proceed in solution. The nitrogen production increased linearly with increasing initial concentration of ammonium nitrite. The concentration factor in the unfrozen solution in ice was estimated to be 50.6 when the initial concentration was 0.5 mmol dm -3, as obtained from comparison of reaction rates in solution and in ice. A new method for determination of the activation energy is proposed that gives a value of 53 to 61 kJ mol -1 for denitrification. The reaction order of the denitrification process is also determined using our method, and it is concluded to follow third-order kinetics. (Figure presented) © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Carratala A.,University of Barcelona | Carratala A.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Rusinol M.,University of Barcelona | Rodriguez-Manzano J.,University of Barcelona | And 3 more authors.
Food and Environmental Virology | Year: 2013

Environmental factors are highly relevant to the global dissemination of viral pathogens. However, the specific contribution of major effectors such as temperature and sunlight on the inactivation of waterborne viruses is not well characterized. In this study, the effect of temperature (7, 20, and 37 °C), UVB and UVA radiation on viral inactivation was evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), mineral water, wastewater, 1,000-fold diluted wastewater and seawater. The stability of human adenoviruses infectivity, known as human pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination, was monitored during 24 h, both in the dark and exposed to UV radiation by immunofluorescence assays. In the dark, no Human adenovirus (HAdV) inactivation was observed in PBS and mineral water at any of the temperatures studied, whereas at 37 °C in reactors with higher microbial concentration (wastewater, diluted wastewater, and seawater), decays between 2.5 and 5 log were recorded. UVB radiation showed a dramatic effect on HAdV inactivation and 6-log were achieved in all reactors by the end of the experiments. The effect of UVA showed to be dependent on the water matrix analyzed. At 20 °C, HAdV showed a 2-log decay in all reactors radiation while at 37 °C, results in wastewater, diluted wastewater, and seawater reactors were equivalent to those observed in the dark. These results suggest UVB radiation as the major environmental factor challenging viral inactivation, followed by biotic activity indirectly associated to higher temperatures and finally, by UVA radiation. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Sigstam T.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Rohatschek A.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Zhong Q.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Brennecke M.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Kohn T.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry
Water Research | Year: 2014

This study investigates the mechanisms underlying the deviation from Chick-Watson kinetics, namely a tailing curve, during the disinfection of viruses by chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Tailing has been previously reported, but is typically attributed to the decay in disinfectant concentration. Herein, it is shown that tailing occurs even at constant ClO2 concentrations. Four working hypothesis to explain the cause of tailing were tested, specifically changes in the solution's disinfecting capacity, aggregation of viruses, resistant virus subpopulations, and changes in the virus properties during disinfection. In experiments using MS2 as a model virus, it was possible to rule out the solution's disinfecting capacity, virus aggregation and the resistant subpopulation as reasons for tailing. Instead, the cause for tailing is the deposition of an adduct onto the virus capsid over the course of the experiment, which protects the viruses. This adduct could easily be removed by washing, which restored the susceptibility of the viruses to ClO2. This finding highlights an important shortcoming of ClO2, namely its self-limiting effect on virus disinfection. It is important to take this effect into account in treatment applications to ensure that the water is sufficiently disinfected before human consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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