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Girones R.,University of Barcelona | Girones R.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Carratala A.,University of Barcelona | Carratala A.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Water and Health | Year: 2014

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and has been recognized as a common source of large waterborne outbreaks involving contaminated water in developing countries. Thus, there is the need to produce experimental data on the disinfection kinetics of HEV by chlorine in water samples with diverse levels of fecal contamination. Here, the inactivation of HEV and human adenovirus C serotype 2 (HAdV2), used as a reference virus, was monitored using immunofluorescence and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays. HEV has been shown to be susceptible to chlorine disinfection and presented equivalent kinetics to human adenoviruses. The C(t ) values observed for a 2-log reduction of HEV were 0.41 in buffered demand-free water and 11.21 mg/L x min in the presence of 1% sewage. The results indicate that the inactivation kinetics of HEV and HAdV2 are equivalent and support the use of chlorine disinfection as an effective strategy to control HEV waterborne transmission. © IWA Publishing 2014 Journal.

Carratala A.,University of Barcelona | Carratala A.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Rusinol M.,University of Barcelona | Rodriguez-Manzano J.,University of Barcelona | And 3 more authors.
Food and Environmental Virology | Year: 2013

Environmental factors are highly relevant to the global dissemination of viral pathogens. However, the specific contribution of major effectors such as temperature and sunlight on the inactivation of waterborne viruses is not well characterized. In this study, the effect of temperature (7, 20, and 37 °C), UVB and UVA radiation on viral inactivation was evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), mineral water, wastewater, 1,000-fold diluted wastewater and seawater. The stability of human adenoviruses infectivity, known as human pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination, was monitored during 24 h, both in the dark and exposed to UV radiation by immunofluorescence assays. In the dark, no Human adenovirus (HAdV) inactivation was observed in PBS and mineral water at any of the temperatures studied, whereas at 37 °C in reactors with higher microbial concentration (wastewater, diluted wastewater, and seawater), decays between 2.5 and 5 log were recorded. UVB radiation showed a dramatic effect on HAdV inactivation and 6-log were achieved in all reactors by the end of the experiments. The effect of UVA showed to be dependent on the water matrix analyzed. At 20 °C, HAdV showed a 2-log decay in all reactors radiation while at 37 °C, results in wastewater, diluted wastewater, and seawater reactors were equivalent to those observed in the dark. These results suggest UVB radiation as the major environmental factor challenging viral inactivation, followed by biotic activity indirectly associated to higher temperatures and finally, by UVA radiation. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Golbamaki N.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Rasulev B.,Jackson State University | Rasulev B.,North Dakota State University | Cassano A.,Liverpool John Moores University | And 4 more authors.
Nanoscale | Year: 2015

Nanotechnology has rapidly entered into human society, revolutionized many areas, including technology, medicine and cosmetics. This progress is due to the many valuable and unique properties that nanomaterials possess. In turn, these properties might become an issue of concern when considering potentially uncontrolled release to the environment. The rapid development of new nanomaterials thus raises questions about their impact on the environment and human health. This review focuses on the potential of nanomaterials to cause genotoxicity and summarizes recent genotoxicity studies on metal oxide/silica nanomaterials. Though the number of genotoxicity studies on metal oxide/silica nanomaterials is still limited, this endpoint has recently received more attention for nanomaterials, and the number of related publications has increased. An analysis of these peer reviewed publications over nearly two decades shows that the test most employed to evaluate the genotoxicity of these nanomaterials is the comet assay, followed by micronucleus, Ames and chromosome aberration tests. Based on the data studied, we concluded that in the majority of the publications analysed in this review, the metal oxide (or silica) nanoparticles of the same core chemical composition did not show different genotoxicity study calls (i.e. positive or negative) in the same test, although some results are inconsistent and need to be confirmed by additional experiments. Where the results are conflicting, it may be due to the following reasons: (1) variation in size of the nanoparticles; (2) variations in size distribution; (3) various purities of nanomaterials; (4) variation in surface areas for nanomaterials with the same average size; (5) differences in coatings; (6) differences in crystal structures of the same types of nanomaterials; (7) differences in size of aggregates in solution/media; (8) differences in assays; (9) different concentrations of nanomaterials in assay tests. Indeed, due to the observed inconsistencies in the recent literature and the lack of adherence to appropriate, standardized test methods, reliable genotoxicity assessment of nanomaterials is still challenging. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Vinceti M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bonvicini F.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bonvicini F.,Local Health Unit of Reggio Emilia | Rothman K.J.,RTI Health Solutions | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2010

Background. A community in northern Italy was previously reported to have an excess incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among residents exposed to high levels of inorganic selenium in their drinking water. Methods. To assess the extent to which such association persisted in the decade following its initial observation, we conducted a population-based case-control study encompassing forty-one newly-diagnosed cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and eighty-two age- and sex-matched controls. We measured long-term intake of inorganic selenium along with other potentially neurotoxic trace elements. Results. We found that consumption of drinking water containing 1 g/l of inorganic selenium was associated with a relative risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of 5.4 (95% confidence interval 1.1-26) after adjustment for confounding factors. Greater amounts of cumulative inorganic selenium intake were associated with progressively increasing effects, with a relative risk of 2.1 (95% confidence interval 0.5-9.1) for intermediate levels of cumulative intake and 6.4 (95% confidence interval 1.3-31) for high intake. Conclusion. Based on these results, coupled with other epidemiologic data and with findings from animal studies that show specific toxicity of the trace element on motor neurons, we hypothesize that dietary intake of inorganic selenium through drinking water increases the risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2010 Vinceti et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Takenaka N.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Takahashi I.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Suekane H.,Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry | Yamamoto K.,Osaka Prefecture University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2011

A reaction of ammonium nitrite in ice was investigated. Upon freezing, some nitrite is oxidized by dissolved oxygen and some nitrite reacts with ammonium to produce nitrogen and water in a denitrification reaction. The former reaction was accelerated only during freezing, and the latter one was accelerated even after the whole sample was frozen. The denitrification reaction proceeded at very low concentration in ice, which were conditions under which the reaction would not proceed in solution. The nitrogen production increased linearly with increasing initial concentration of ammonium nitrite. The concentration factor in the unfrozen solution in ice was estimated to be 50.6 when the initial concentration was 0.5 mmol dm -3, as obtained from comparison of reaction rates in solution and in ice. A new method for determination of the activation energy is proposed that gives a value of 53 to 61 kJ mol -1 for denitrification. The reaction order of the denitrification process is also determined using our method, and it is concluded to follow third-order kinetics. (Figure presented) © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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