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Forrest D.,Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology | Wess J.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2013

Thyroid hormone is a well-known regulator of metabolic and cardiovascular functions, and signaling through thyroid receptors has differential effects on cells depending on the receptor isoform that they express. In this issue of the JCI, Mittag et al. provide evidence that thyroid hormone receptors are essential for the formation of a population of parvalbuminergic neurons in the anterior hypothalamus, linking, for the first time, impaired thyroid hormone signaling during development to cellular deficits in the hypothalamus. Since this newly discovered cell group is predicted to play a role in regulating cardiovascular function, these findings suggest that developmental hypothyroidism may be the cause of cardiovascular disorders later in life. Source


Lee G.-S.,Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology | Lee G.-S.,Kangwon National University | He Y.,Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology | He Y.,Van Andel Research Institute | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

TTLL5/STAMP (tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 5) has multiple activities in cells. TTLL5 is one of 13 TTLLs, has polyglutamylation activity, augments the activity of p160 coactivators (SRC-1 and TIF2) in glucocorticoid receptor-regulated gene induction and repression, and displays steroid-independent growth activity with several cell types. To examine TTLL5/STAMP functions in whole animals, mice were prepared with an internal deletion that eliminated several activities of the Stamp gene. This mutation causes both reduced levels of STAMP mRNA and C-terminal truncation of STAMP protein. Homozygous targeted mutant (Stamptm/tm) mice appear normal except for marked decreases in male fertility associated with defects in progressive sperm motility. Abnormal axonemal structures with loss of tubulin doublets occur in most Stamptm/tm sperm tails in conjunction with substantial reduction in α-tubulin polyglutamylation, which closely correlates with the reduction in mutant STAMP mRNA. The axonemes in other structures appear unaffected. There is no obvious change in the organs for sperm development of WT versus Stamptm/tm males despite the levels of WT STAMP mRNA in testes being 20-fold higher than in any other organ examined. This defect in male fertility is unrelated to other Ttll genes or 24 genes previously identified as important for sperm function. Thus, STAMP appears to participate in a unique, tissue-selective TTLL-mediated pathway for α-tubulin polyglutamylation that is required for sperm maturation and motility and may be relevant for male fertility. Source

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