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Ishikawa L.L.W.,Sao Paulo State University | Colavite P.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Fraga-Silva T.F.D.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Mimura L.A.N.,Sao Paulo State University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Immunology Research | Year: 2016

This study was undertaken to evaluate the prophylactic potential of proteoglycan (PG) administration in experimental arthritis. Female BALB/c retired breeder mice received two (2xPG50 and 2xPG100 groups) or three (3xPG50 group) intraperitoneal doses of bovine PG (50 μg or 100 μg) every three days. A week later the animals were submitted to arthritis induction by immunization with three i.p. doses of bovine PG associated with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide adjuvant at intervals of 21 days. Disease severity was daily assessed after the third dose by score evaluation. The 3xPG50 group showed significant reduction in prevalence and clinical scores. This protective effect was associated with lower production of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increased production of IL-5 and IL-10 by spleen cells restimulated in vitro with PG. Even though previous PG administration restrained dendritic cells maturation this procedure did not alter the frequency of regulatory Foxp3+ T cells. Lower TNF-α and IL-6 levels and higher expression of ROR-γ and GATA-3 were detected in the paws of protected animals. A delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction confirmed specific tolerance induction. Taken together, these results indicate that previous PG inoculation determines a specific tolerogenic effect that is able to decrease severity of subsequently induced arthritis. © 2016 Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa et al. Source


Villaverde A.I.S.B.,Sao Paulo State University | Fioratti E.G.,Sao Paulo State University | Penitenti M.,Laboratory of Flow Cytometry | Ikoma M.R.V.,Laboratory of Flow Cytometry | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2013

Cryopreservation of spermatozoa is a pivotal tool in assisted reproduction, and studies aiming to establish optimal freezing/thawing protocols are essential to enhance sperm survival. The objectives of the present study were to (1) compare the cryoprotective efficiency of three different glycerol concentrations (3%, 5%, and 7%) on the basis of post-thaw sperm quality and (2) investigate whether the incidence of morphologically abnormal sperm in fresh samples is related to cryodamage sensitivity. Semen was collected from six tomcats using an artificial vagina (total 18 ejaculates). Each ejaculate was diluted using Tris-egg yolk-based extender (TEY), evaluated, equally divided into three aliquots, and rediluted using TEY with and without glycerol to achieve final concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 7%. Samples were loaded into 0.25 mL straws, equilibrated for 60 minutes at 5 °C, frozen, and then thawed at 46 °C for 12 seconds. Fresh and frozen-thawed samples were evaluated for sperm motion parameters (computer-assisted sperm analysis), plasma membrane integrity (PMI; propidium iodide and carboxyfluorescein diacetate), and DNA integrity (acridine orange). Plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity were assessed by flow cytometry (propidium iodide and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated pea (Pisum sativum) agglutinin) immediately after thawing. Sperm motion parameters were also evaluated at 30 and 60 minutes of postincubation. For all treatment groups, cryopreservation significantly impaired the PMI and sperm motion parameters, except for straightness and amplitude of lateral head displacement. DNA integrity showed a slight reduction (P < 0.05) when 3% glycerol was used. The percentage of total motility, progressive motility, and rapid spermatozoa were significantly lower immediately after thawing and up to 60 minutes of incubation for the 3% glycerol group when compared with 5% and 7%. No difference (P > 0.05) was found for PMI, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity among post-thaw groups. However, higher (P < 0.05) incidence of viable cells with reacted acrosome and dead cells with intact acrosome were observed with 7% and 3% glycerol, respectively. Percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa in fresh sample was positively correlated with PMI only in the 3% glycerol group and negatively correlated with sperm motility in the 5% and 7% groups. In conclusion, the final concentration of 5% glycerol offered better cryoprotective effect for ejaculated cat sperm, and the relationship found between prefreezing sperm morphology and post-thaw sperm quality showed to be dependent on final glycerol concentration. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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