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Munkholm K.,Copenhagen University | Poulsen H.E.,Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology Q7642 | Kessing L.V.,Copenhagen University | Vinberg M.,Copenhagen University
Bipolar Disorders | Year: 2015

Objectives: The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder and its multi-system nature are unclear. Oxidatively generated damage to nucleosides has been demonstrated in metabolic disorders; however, the extent to which this occurs in bipolar disorder in vivo is unknown. We investigated oxidatively generated damage to DNA and RNA in patients with bipolar disorder and its relationship with the affective phase compared with healthy control subjects. Methods: Urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), markers of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, respectively, was measured in 37 rapid cycling patients with bipolar disorder and in 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Employing a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of both markers were evaluated in various affective phases in patients with bipolar disorder during a six- to 12-month period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Results: In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical, metabolic, and lifestyle factors, the excretion of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo was significantly elevated in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy control subjects, with increases of 40% (p < 0.0005) and 43% (p < 0.0005), respectively. The increased oxidatively generated nucleoside damage was present through all affective phases of the illness, with no significant difference between affective states. Conclusions: Our results indicate that bipolar disorder is associated with increased oxidatively generated damage to nucleosides. The findings could suggest a role for oxidatively generated damage to DNA and RNA as a molecular mechanism contributing to the increased risk of medical disorders, shortened life expectancy, and the progressive course of illness observed in bipolar disorder. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Klarskov P.,Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology Q7642 | Andersen J.T.,Copenhagen University | Jimenez-Solem E.,Copenhagen University | Torp-Pedersen C.,Copenhagen University | Poulsen H.E.,Copenhagen University
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE:: To investigate the association between maternal use of sulfamethizole near term and the risk of neonatal jaundice. METHODS:: We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study using Danish registers. All Danish women giving birth between 1995 and 2007 were included from the Danish Fertility Database. Women redeeming a prescription for sulfamethizole up to 4 weeks before giving birth were identified from the National Prescription Register. The primary outcome was the number of neonates diagnosed with jaundice between birth and age 28 days identified in the National Hospital Register. Risk of neonatal jaundice was calculated as odds ratios (ORs) with linear logistic regression with and without adjustment for confounders. RESULTS:: We identified 841,900 births. Of 1,823 (0.2%) neonates exposed to sulfamethizole up to 4 weeks before birth, 197 (10.8%) developed neonatal jaundice. The OR of developing neonatal jaundice after exposure to sulfamethizole was 2.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02-2.72). Adjustment for maternal age, education, household income, parity, and period of conception left OR unchanged at 2.29 (95% CI 1.97-2.67). After further adjustment for gestational age, the risk associated with sulfamethizole was rendered insignificant (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.22). Narrowing exposure time to the last week before birth did not change the estimates. Broken into gestational age groups, the rate of neonates with jaundice after exposure was similar to the rate of unexposed neonates with jaundice. CONCLUSIONS:: We found no association between redeeming a prescription of sulfamethizole near term and increased risk of neonatal jaundice. We showed that the presumed association is the result of preterm birth, which can be caused by maternal urinary tract infection. © 2013 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Svenningsen H.,Geological Survey of Denmark | Svenningsen H.,Copenhagen University | Svenningsen H.,Cowi A/S | Henriksen T.,Geological Survey of Denmark | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2011

Effects of the common antibacterial agent triclosan on microbial communities and degradation of domestic xenobiotics were studied in simulated sewage-drain-field soil. Cultivable microbial populations decreased 22-fold in the presence of 4 mg kg-1 of triclosan, and triclosan-resistant Pseudomonas strains were strongly enriched. Exposure to triclosan also changed the general metabolic profile (Ecoplate substrate profiling) and the general profile (T-RFLP) of the microbial community. Triclosan degradation was slow at all concentrations tested (0.33-81 mg kg-1) during 50-days of incubation. Mineralization experiments (14C-tracers) and chemical analyses (LC-MS/MS) showed that the persistence of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and a common analgesic (ibuprofen) increased with increasing triclosan concentrations (0.16-100 mg kg-1). The largest effect was seen for LAS mineralization which was severely reduced by 0.16 mg kg -1 of triclosan. Our findings indicate that environmentally realistic concentrations of triclosan may affect the efficiency of biodegradation in percolation systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Joergensen A.,Psychiatric Center Copenhagen | Broedbaek K.,Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology Q7642 | Weimann A.,Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology Q7642 | Semba R.D.,Johns Hopkins University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not known. Prolonged elevations of the stress hormone cortisol is suspected to play a critical role. Through its actions, cortisol may potentially induce oxidatively generated damage to cellular constituents such as DNA and RNA, a phenomenon which has been implicated in aging processes. We investigated the relationship between 24 h excretion of urinary cortisol and markers of oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine, in a sample of 220 elderly men and women (age 65 - 83 years). We found a robust association between the excretion of cortisol and the oxidation markers (R2 = 0.15, P<0.001 for both markers). Individuals in the highest quartile of cortisol excretion had a 57% and 61% higher median excretion of the DNA and RNA oxidation marker, respectively, than individuals in the lowest quartile. The finding adds support to the hypothesis that cortisol-induced damage to DNA/RNA is an explanatory factor in the complex relation between stress, aging and disease. © 2011 Joergensen et al.

Broedbaek K.,Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology Q7642 | Weimann A.,Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology Q7642 | Stovgaard E.S.,Bispebjerg Hospital | Poulsen H.E.,Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology Q7642 | Poulsen H.E.,Copenhagen University
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

The increasing prevalence of diabetes together with the associated morbidity and mortality calls for additional preventive and therapeutic strategies. New biomarkers that can be used in therapy control and risk stratification as alternatives to current methods are needed and can facilitate a more individualized and sufficient treatment of diabetes. Evidence derived from both epidemiological and mechanistic studies suggests that oxidative stress has an important role in mediating the pathologies of diabetic complications. A marker of intracellular oxidative stress that potentially could be used as a valuable biomarker in diabetes is the DNA oxidation marker 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro- 2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which can be assessed noninvasively in the urine, with minimal discomfort for the patient. In this review the analytical validity of 8-oxodG is addressed by highlighting important methodological issues. The available epidemiological evidence regarding urinary 8-oxodG and type 2 diabetes is presented. A possible role for DNA oxidation in cancer development in type 2 diabetes patients is discussed, followed by an evaluation of the potential of urinary 8-oxodG as a clinical biomarker in type 2 diabetes. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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