Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Ahoua L.,Epicentre | Guenther G.,Epicentre | Rouzioux C.,Laboratory of Virology | Pinoges L.,Epicentre | And 6 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Background: Children living with HIV continue to be in urgent need of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART). Strategies to scale up and improve pediatric HIV care in resource-poor regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, require further research from these settings. We describe treatment outcomes in children treated in rural Uganda after 1 and 2 years of ART start.Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of all children treated with ART for 12 (M12) and 24 (M24) months was performed. CD4 counts, HIV RNA levels, antiretroviral resistance patterns, and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) plasma concentrations were determined. Patient adherence and antiretroviral-related toxicity were assessed.Results: Cohort probabilities of retention in care were 0.86 at both M12 and M24. At survey, 71 (83%, M12) and 32 (78%, M24) children remained on therapy, and 84% participated in the survey. At ART start, 39 (45%) were female; median age was 5 years. Median initial CD4 percent was 11% [IQR 9-15] in children < 5 years old (n = 12); CD4 count was 151 cells/mm3[IQR 38-188] in those ≥ 5 years old (n = 26). At M12, median CD4 gains were 11% [IQR 10-14] in patients < 5 years old, and 206 cells/mm3[IQR 98-348] in ≥ 5 years old. At M24, median CD4 gains were 11% [IQR 5-17] and 132 cells/mm3[IQR 87-443], respectively. Viral suppression (< 400 copies/mL) was achieved in 59% (M12) and 33% (M24) of children. Antiretroviral resistance was found in 25% (M12) and 62% (M24) of children. Overall, 29% of patients had subtherapeutic NNRTI plasma concentrations.Conclusions: After one year of therapy, satisfactory survival and immunological responses were observed, but nearly 1 in 4 children developed viral resistance and/or subtherapeutic plasma antiretroviral drug levels. Regular weight-adjustment dosing and strategies to reinforce and maintain ART adherence are essential to maximize duration of first-line therapy in children in resource-limited countries. © 2011 Ahoua et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ellegaard P.K.,Research Unit | Poulsen H.E.,Bispebjerg Hospital | Poulsen H.E.,Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology | Poulsen H.E.,Copenhagen University
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2016

Oxidative stress to DNA from smoking was investigated in one randomized smoking cessation study and in 36 cohort studies from excretion of urinary 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Meta-analysis of the 36 cohort studies showed smoking associated with a 15.7% (95% CL 11.0:20.3, p < 0.0001) increased oxidative stress to DNA, in agreement with the reduction of oxidative stress to DNA found in the smoking cessation study. Meta-analysis of the 22 studies that used chromatography methodology on 1709 persons showed a significant 29.3% increase in smokers (95% CL 17.3;41.3), but meta-analysis of 14 studies on 3668 persons using ELISA methodology showed a non-significant effect of 8.7% [95% CL -1.2;18.6]. Tobacco smoke induces oxidative damage to DNA; however, this is not detected with ELISA methodology. Currently, the use of existing ELISA methodology to measure urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine cannot be recommended. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.


Skov M.,Copenhagen University | Pressler T.,Copenhagen University | Lykkesfeldt J.,Copenhagen University | Poulsen H.E.,Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis | Year: 2015

Background: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection have increased oxidative stress as a result of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species caused by inflammation and their inactivation by the impaired antioxidant systems. Supplementation with anti-oxidants is potentially beneficial for CF patients. Methods: The effect of 4. weeks of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment (2400. mg/day divided into two doses) on biochemical parameters of oxidative stress was investigated in an open-label, controlled, randomized trial on 21 patients; 11 patients in the NAC group and 10 in the control group. Biochemical parameters of oxidative burden and plasma levels of antioxidants were assessed at the end of the study and compared to the baseline values in the two groups. Results: A significant increase in the plasma levels of the antioxidant ascorbic acid (p = 0.037) and a significant decrease in the levels of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid (dehydroascorbate) (p = 0.004) compared to baseline were achieved after NAC treatment. No significant differences were observed in the control group. The parameters of oxidative burden did not change significantly compared to baseline in either of the groups. A better lung function was observed in the NAC treated group with a mean (SD) change compared to baseline of FEV1% predicted of 2.11 (4.6), while a decrease was observed in the control group (change - 1.4 (4.6)), though not statistically significant. Conclusion: Treatment with N-acetylcysteine 1200 mg × 2/day for 30. days significantly decreased the level of oxidized vitamin C and increased the level of vitamin C (primary end-points) and a not statistically significant improvement of lung function was observed in this group of patients. © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society.


Ellegaard P.K.,Research Unit | Poulsen H.E.,Bispebjerg Hospital | Poulsen H.E.,Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology | Poulsen H.E.,Copenhagen University
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2016

Oxidative stress to DNA from smoking was investigated in one randomized smoking cessation study and in 36 cohort studies from excretion of urinary 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Meta-analysis of the 36 cohort studies showed smoking associated with a 15.7% (95% CL 11.0:20.3, p < 0.0001) increased oxidative stress to DNA, in agreement with the reduction of oxidative stress to DNA found in the smoking cessation study. Meta-analysis of the 22 studies that used chromatography methodology on 1709 persons showed a significant 29.3% increase in smokers (95% CL 17.3;41.3), but meta-analysis of 14 studies on 3668 persons using ELISA methodology showed a non-significant effect of 8.7% [95% CL −1.2;18.6]. Tobacco smoke induces oxidative damage to DNA; however, this is not detected with ELISA methodology. Currently, the use of existing ELISA methodology to measure urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine cannot be recommended. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Bolling R.,University of Aalborg | Scheller N.M.,University of Aalborg | Kober L.,Copenhagen University | Poulsen H.E.,Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Heart Failure | Year: 2014

Aim To compare survival on different beta-blockers in heart failure. Methods and results We identified all Danish patients ≥35 years of age who were hospitalized with a first admission for heart failure and who initiated treatment with a beta-blocker within 60 days of discharge. The study period was 1995-2011. The main outcome was all-cause mortality and all-cause hospitalization. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare survival. The study included 58 634 patients of whom 30.121 (51.4%) died and 46.990 (80.1%) were hospitalized during follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 4.1 years. In an unadjusted model carvedilol was associated with a lower mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.737, 0.714-0.761] compared with metoprolol (reference) while bisoprolol was not associated with an increased mortality (HR 1.020, 0.973-1.069). In a model adjusted for possible confounders and stratified according to beta-blocker dosages, patients that received high-dose carvedilol (≥50 mg daily) had a lower all-cause mortality risk (HR 0.873, 0.789-0.966) than patients receiving high-dose (≥200 mg daily) metoprolol (reference). High-dose bisoprolol (≥10 mg daily) was associated with a greater risk of death (HR 1.125, 1.004-1.261). High-dose carvedilol was associated with significantly lower all-cause hospitalization risk (HR 0.842, 0.774-0.915) than high-dose metoprolol (reference), while high-dose bisoprolol had insignificantly lower risk than high-dose metoprolol (HR 0.948, 0.850-1.057). Conclusions Heart failure patients receiving high-dose carvedilol (≥50 mg daily) showed significantly lower all-cause mortality risk and hospitalization risk, compared with other beta-blockers. © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

Discover hidden collaborations