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Meyer C.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Hofmann J.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Burmeister T.,Oncology and Tumor Immunology | Groger D.,Oncology and Tumor Immunology | And 82 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2013

Chromosomal rearrangements of the human MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) gene are associated with high-risk infant, pediatric, adult and therapy-induced acute leukemias. We used long-distance inverse-polymerase chain reaction to characterize the chromosomal rearrangement of individual acute leukemia patients. We present data of the molecular characterization of 1590 MLL-rearranged biopsy samples obtained from acute leukemia patients. The precise localization of genomic breakpoints within the MLL gene and the involved translocation partner genes (TPGs) were determined and novel TPGs identified. All patients were classified according to their gender (852 females and 745 males), age at diagnosis (558 infant, 416 pediatric and 616 adult leukemia patients) and other clinical criteria. Combined data of our study and recently published data revealed a total of 121 different MLL rearrangements, of which 79 TPGs are now characterized at the molecular level. However, only seven rearrangements seem to be predominantly associated with illegitimate recombinations of the MLL gene (∼90%): AFF1/AF4, MLLT3/AF9, MLLT1/ENL, MLLT10/AF10, ELL, partial tandem duplications (MLL PTDs) and MLLT4/AF6, respectively. The MLL breakpoint distributions for all clinical relevant subtypes (gender, disease type, age at diagnosis, reciprocal, complex and therapy-induced translocations) are presented. Finally, we present the extending network of reciprocal MLL fusions deriving from complex rearrangements. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Lopez W.O.C.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Lopez W.O.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Nikkhah G.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Nikkhah G.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 10 more authors.
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Purpose: The concept of transplantation of neuronal cells to treat Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases is based on the proven principle that dopaminergic and GABA-ergic progenitor neurons (from the human developing ventral mesencephalon and whole ganglionic eminence) can survive, differentiate and functionally integrate into an allogenic host brain. However, several donor and host-specific variables play a major role in the safety and outcome of this procedure. In this paper, we seek to summarize an updated neural transplantation protocol, based on our institutional experience and many years of collaboration with other neurotransplantation centers. Methods: We present a detailed clinical neurotransplantation protocol for Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's (HD) diseases with special emphasis in understanding the anatomical relationships of the human fetal tissue that are relevant for selection of the desired cell populations. Results: Two detailed step-wise neurotransplantation protocols are presented, outlining strategies facilitating the avoidance of possible procedure-related complications. Conclusions: In this paper we delineated some crucial technical factors enabling the execution of a safe and effective neural transplantation. The protocols presented here might contribute to further development of the experimental clinical neurotransplantation towards a routine therapeutic procedure. © 2013 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

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