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Belaid A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Belaid A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Belaid A.,Equipe Labellisee par lARC | Cerezo M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 36 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Degradation of signaling proteins is one of the most powerful tumor-suppressive mechanisms by which a cell can control its own growth. Here, we identify RHOA as the molecular target by which autophagy maintains genomic stability. Specifically, inhibition of autophagosome degradation by the loss of the v-ATPase a3 (TCIRG1) subunit is sufficient to induce aneuploidy. Underlying this phenotype, active RHOA is sequestered via p62 (SQSTM1) within autolysosomes and fails to localize to the plasma membrane or to the spindle midbody. Conversely, inhibition of autophagosome formation by ATG5 shRNA dramatically increases localization of active RHOA at the midbody, followed by diffusion to the flanking zones. As a result, all of the approaches we examined that compromise autophagy (irrespective of the defect: autophagosome formation, sequestration, or degradation) drive cytokinesis failure, multinucleation, and aneuploidy, processes that directly have an impact upon cancer progression. Consistently, we report a positive correlation between autophagy defects and the higher expression of RHOA in human lung carcinoma. We therefore propose that autophagy may act, in part, as a safeguard mechanism that degrades and thereby maintains the appropriate level of active RHOA at the midbody for faithful completion of cytokinesis and genome inheritance. © 2013 AACR.


Hofman V.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Hofman V.,Pasteur Hospital | Hofman V.,Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology | Hofman V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 23 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Purpose: Pathologic TNM staging is currently the best prognostic factor for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, even in early-stage NSCLC, the recurrence rates after surgery range from 25% to 50%. The preoperative detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) could be useful to tailor new therapeutic strategies in NSCLC. We assessed the presence of CTC in NSCLC patients undergoing surgery, using cytologic analyses, after their isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells (ISET method). The presence and the number of CTCs were considered and correlated with clinicopathologic parameters including patient follow-up. Experimental design: Of the 247 blood samples tested, 208 samples were from patients with resectable NSCLC and 39 from healthy subjects. The mean follow-up was 24 months. An image of detected cells with presumably nonhematologic features [initially defined as "circulating nonhematologic cells" (CNHC)] was recorded. The presence of CNHC was assessed blindly and independently by 10 cytopathologists, using cytologic criteria of malignancy on stained filters. The count of detected CNHCs was made for each filter. Results: One hundred two of 208 (49%) patients showed CNHCs corresponding to CNHC with malignant cytopathologic features in 76 of 208 (36%) cases. CNHCs were not detected in the control group. A level of 50 or more CNHCs corresponding to the third quartile was associated with shorter overall and disease-free-survival, independently of disease staging, and with a high risk of recurrence and death in early-stage I + II-resectable NSCLC. Conclusion: A high percentage of NSCLC patients show preoperative detection of CNHC by the ISET method. The presence and level of 50 or more CNHCs are associated with worse survival of patients with resectable NSCLC. ©2010 AACR.


Hofman V.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Hofman V.,Pasteur Hospital | Hofman V.,Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology | Hofman V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 31 more authors.
Cytopathology | Year: 2012

Background and objective: Recurrence rates after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) range from 25 to 50% and 5-year survival is only 60-70%. Because no biomarkers are predictive of recurrence or the onset of metastasis, pathological TNM (pTNM) staging is currently the best prognostic factor. Consequently, the preoperative detection of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) might be useful in tailoring therapy. The aim of this study was to characterize morphologically any circulating non-haematological cells (CNHCs) in patients undergoing surgery for NSCLC using the isolation by size of epithelial tumour cell (ISET) method. Methods: Of 299 blood samples tested, 250 were from patients with resectable NSCLC and 59 from healthy controls. The presence of CNHCs was assessed blindly and independently by 10 cytopathologists on May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained filters and the cells classified into three groups: (i) malignant cells, (ii) uncertain malignant cells, and (iii) benign cells. We assessed interobserver agreement using Kappa (κ) analysis as the measure of agreement. Results: A total of 123 out of 250 (49%) patients showed CNHCs corresponding to malignant, uncertain malignant and benign cells, in 102/250 (41%), 15/250 (6%) and 6/250 (2%) cases, respectively. No CNHCs were detected in the blood of healthy subjects. Interobserver diagnostic variability was absent for CNHCs, low for malignant cells and limited for uncertain malignant and benign cells. Conclusion: Identification of CTCs in resectable NSCLC patients, using ISET technology and according to cytopathological criteria of malignancy, appears to be a new and promising field of cytopathology with potential relevance to lung oncology. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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