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Casiraghi F.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Azzollini N.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Todeschini M.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Cavinato R.A.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Transplantation | Year: 2012

Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have recently emerged as promising candidates for cell-based immunotherapy in solid-organ transplantation. However, optimal conditions and settings for fully harnessing MSC tolerogenic properties need to be defined. We recently reported that autologous MSC given posttransplant in kidney transplant patients was associated with transient renal insufficiency associated with intragraft recruitment of neutrophils and complement C3 deposition. Here, we moved back to a murine kidney transplant model with the aim to define the best timing of MSC infusion capable of promoting immune tolerance without negative effects on early graft function. We also investigated the mechanisms of the immunomodulatory and/or proinflammatory activities of MSC according to whether cells were given before or after transplant. Posttransplant MSC infusion in mice caused premature graft dysfunction and failed to prolong graft survival. In this setting, infused MSC localized mainly into the graft and associated with neutrophils and complement C3 deposition. By contrast, pretransplant MSC infusion induced a significant prolongation of kidney graft survival by a Treg-dependent mechanism. MSC-infused pretransplant localized into lymphoid organs where they promoted early expansion of Tregs. Thus, pretransplant MSC infusion may be a useful approach to fully exploit their immunomodulatory properties in kidney transplantation. In a murine kidney transplant model, posttransplant MSC infusion causes premature graft dysfunction and fails to prolong graft survival, while pretransplant MSC infusion induces a significant prolongation of kidney graft survival by a regulatory T cell-dependent mechanism. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. Source

Capelli C.,Laboratory Of Cell Therapy G Lanzani | Gotti E.,Laboratory Of Cell Therapy G Lanzani | Morigi M.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Rota C.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | And 9 more authors.
Cytotherapy | Year: 2011

Background aims. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have recently been identified as a therapeutic option in several clinical conditions. Whereas bone marrow (BM) is considered the main source of MSC (BM-MSC), the invasive technique required for collection and the decline in allogeneic donations call for alternative sources. Human umbilical cord (UC) represents an easily available source of MSC (UC-MSC). Methods. Sections of full-term UC were transferred to cell culture flasks and cultured in 5% human platelet lysate (PL)-enriched medium. Neither enzymatic digestion nor blood vessel removal was performed. After 2 weeks, the adherent cells were harvested (P1), replated at low density and expanded for two consecutive rounds (P2 and P3). Results. We isolated and expanded MSC from 9/9 UC. UC-MSC expanded with a mean fold increase (FI) of 42 735 ± 16 195 from P1 to P3 in a mean of 29 ± 2 days. By processing the entire cord unit, we theoretically could have reached a median of 9.5 × 1010 cells (ranging from 1.0 × 1010 to 29.0 × 1010). UC-MSC expressed standard surface markers; they contained more colony-forming unit (CFU)-fibroblast (F) and seemed less committed towards osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages than BM-MSC. They showed immunosuppressive properties both in vitro and in an in vivo chronic Graft versus Host disease (cGvHD) mouse model. Both array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) analysis and karyotyping revealed no chromosome alterations at the end of the expansion. Animal studies revealed no tumorigenicity in vivo. Conclusions. UC constitute a convenient and very rich source of MSC for the production of third-party 'clinical doses' of cells under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. © 2011 Informa Healthcare. Source

Perico N.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Casiraghi F.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Introna M.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Introna M.,Laboratory Of Cell Therapy G Lanzani | And 12 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2011

Background and objectives: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) abrogate alloimmune response in vitro, suggesting a novel cell-based approach in transplantation. Moving this concept toward clinical application in organ transplantation should be critically assessed. Design, setting, participants & measurements: A safety and clinical feasibility study (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00752479) of autologous MSC infusion was conducted in two recipients of kidneys from living-related donors. Patients were given T cell - depleting induction therapy and maintenance immunosuppression with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. On day 7 posttransplant, MSCs were administered intravenously. Clinical and immunomonitoring of MSC-treated patients was performed up to day 360 postsurgery. Results: Serum creatinine levels increased 7 to 14 days after cell infusion in both MSC-treated patients. A graft biopsy in patient 2 excluded acute graft rejection, but showed a focal inflammatory infiltrate, mostly granulocytes. In patient 1 protocol biopsy at 1-year posttransplant showed a normal graft. Both MSCtreated patients are in good health with stable graft function. A progressive increase of the percentage of CD4+CD25highFoxP3+CD127- Treg and a marked inhibition of memory CD45RO+RA-CD8+ T cell expansion were observed posttransplant. Patient T cells showed a profound reduction of CD8+ T cell activity. Conclusions: Findings from this study in the two patients show that MSC infusion in kidney transplant recipients is feasible, allows enlargement of Treg in the peripheral blood, and controls memory CD8+ T cell function. Future clinical trials with MSCs to look with the greatest care for unwanted side effects is advised. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source

Morigi M.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Rota C.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Montemurro T.,Centro Of Medicina Trasfusionale | Montelatici E.,Centro Of Medicina Trasfusionale | And 13 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2010

In search for new sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for renal repair in acute kidney injury (AKI), we investigated the potential of human cord blood (CB)-MSCs to cure mice with AKI. Infusion of CB-MSCs in immunodeficient mice with cisplatin-induced AKI ameliorated both renal function and tubular cell injury, and prolonged survival. Transplanted CB-MSCs localized in peritubular areas, limited capillary alterations and neutrophil infiltration. Apoptosis reduced and tubular cell proliferation increased by virtue of stem cell capacity to produce growth factors. The reno-protective effect of CB-MSCs was further confirmed by their ability to inhibit oxidative damage and to induce the prosurvival factor Akt in tubular cells. The evidence that CB-MSCs in vitro increased the production of growth factors and inhibited IL-1β and TNFα synthesis when cocultured with damaged proximal tubular cells indicates a regenerative and anti-inflammatory action of stem cell treatment. Altogether these results highlight the potential of human CB-MSCs as future cell therapy for testing in human AKI. © AlphaMed Press. Source

Perico N.,Azienda Ospedaliera | Perico N.,Transplant Research Center | Casiraghi F.,Azienda Ospedaliera | Casiraghi F.,Transplant Research Center | And 17 more authors.
Transplant International | Year: 2013

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have emerged as useful cell population for immunomodulation therapy in transplantation. Moving this concept towards clinical application, however, should be critically assessed by a tailor-made step-wise approach. Here, we report results of the second step of the multistep MSC-based clinical protocol in kidney transplantation. We examined in two living-related kidney transplant recipients whether: (i) pre-transplant (DAY-1) infusion of autologous MSC protected from the development of acute graft dysfunction previously reported in patients given MSC post-transplant, (ii) avoiding basiliximab in the induction regimen improved the MSC-induced Treg expansion previously reported with therapy including this anti-CD25-antibody. In patient 3, MSC treatment was uneventful and graft function remained normal during 1 year follow-up. In patient 4, acute cellular rejection occurred 2 weeks post-transplant. Both patients had excellent graft function at the last observation. Circulating memory CD8+ T cells and donor-specific CD8+ T-cell cytolytic response were reduced in MSC-treated patients, not in transplant controls not given MSC. CD4+FoxP3+Treg expansion was comparable in MSC-treated patients with or without basiliximab induction. Thus, pre-transplant MSC no longer negatively affect kidney graft at least to the point of impairing graft function, and maintained MSC-immunomodulatory properties. Induction therapy without basiliximab does not offer any advantage on CD4+FoxP3+Treg expansion (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT 00752479). © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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