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Da Mota S.D.P.,Laboratory of Separation Processes and Applied Thermodynamic TERM | Da Mota S.D.P.,Federal University of Para | Mancio A.A.,Laboratory of Separation Processes and Applied Thermodynamic TERM | Mancio A.A.,Federal University of Para | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2014

In this work, the production of light diesel like fractions by thermal catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) has been systematically investigated in pilot scale. The cracking reactions were carried out in a reactor of 143 L, operating in batch mode at 450 °C and atmospheric pressure, using 20% (w/w) sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as catalyst. The reaction products called organic liquid products (OLP) were submitted to distillation using a laboratory scale column (Vigreux Column) of three stages in order to obtain light diesel like fractions. The catalyst has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, TGA and DTG. The OLP and the green diesel fractions have been physical-chemical characterized by officials AOCS, ASTM, and ABNT/NBR methods in terms of acid value, saponification value, density, refraction index, kinematics viscosity, copper strip corrosion, carbon residue, flash point, and distillation curve. The chemical composition of green diesel has been determined by FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The results show that the process yield on OLP was 65.86% (w/w) with an acid value of 1.02 mg KOH/g OLP and kinematic viscosity of 1.48 mm2/s, 30.24% (w/w) non-condensable gases, 2.5% (w/w) water, and 1.4% (w/w) coke. The yield on green diesel obtained by distillation average 24.9% (w/w), presenting an acid value of 1.68 mg KOH/g green diesel and kinematic viscosity of 1.48 mm2/s. The GC-MS analysis indicated that green diesel is composed of 91.38% (w/w) of hydrocarbons (31.27% normal paraffins, 54.44% olefins and 5.67% of naphthenics), and 8.62% (w/w) of oxygenates compounds. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Mancio A.A.,Federal University of Para | da Costa K.M.B.,Federal University of Para | Ferreira C.C.,Federal University of Para | Santos M.C.,Federal University of Para | And 5 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

In this study, the influence of catalyst content on the physical–chemical properties, yield, and chemical composition of organic liquid products (OLP) obtained by thermal catalytic cracking of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) was studied at a pilot scale. The experiments were carried out in a reactor of 143 L, running in batch mode at 450 °C and 1 atm, using 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (w/w) Na2CO3 as the catalyst. Physical–chemical characterization of OLP was conducted for acid value, saponification value, specific gravity, refractive index, kinematic viscosity, copper strip corrosion, and flash point. The chemical composition of OLP was determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). As the catalyst content increased, the kinematic viscosity of OLP decreased from 6.59 to 3.63 mm2 s−1 and the acid value from 51.56 to 1.26 mg KOH/g. The GC–MS analysis showed that OLP comprise hydrocarbons (normal paraffin, olefin, and naphthenic) and oxygenated compounds (carboxylic acids, alcohols, ketones, and esters), with a high dependency on the catalyst level. As the catalyst content increased, the concentration of hydrocarbons increased, whereas the concentration of oxygenates decreased. The optimal sodium carbonate catalyst level was found to be 15% (w/w). This gave the highest rate of conversion into biofuel, of which around 60% was OLP, and produced biofuels with the lowest acid values. The physical–chemical properties were within the limits fixed by ANP No. 65 (Diesel S10 specification) due to their high hydrocarbon content (92.84%) and low oxygenate content (7.16%). The hydrocarbons produced had characteristics similar to those of petroleum diesel, offering the potential to replace petroleum fuels without requiring deacidification or deoxygenation pretreatment. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


da Silva Almeida H.,Federal University of Para | Correa O.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Eid J.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Ribeiro H.J.,University of Sao Paulo | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2016

This work aims to investigate the effect of catalytic cracking of residual fat, oils, and grease (FOG) from grease traps in different production scales (bench, laboratory, and pilot) on the reaction products yields and OLP properties and the feasibility to produce kerosene-like hydrocarbons. The cracking experiments were carried out in batch mode at 450°C and 1.0 atmosphere, with 10% (wt.) Na2CO3 using a laboratory scale cylindrical borosilicate-glass reactor of 143mL, a bench scale stirred tank slurry reactor of 1.5L, and a pilot scale stirred tank slurry reactor of 143L (≈1:10:1000). The reaction liquid products were physical and chemical analyzed for acid and saponification values, density, kinematic viscosity, refractive index, and copper strip corrosion. FT-IR analysis provided the qualitative chemical composition of OLP obtained in bench, laboratory, and pilot scales, as well as kerosene, light and heavy diesel-like hydrocarbons fractions obtained by distillation of OLP produced in pilot scale with 10% (wt.) Na2CO3. The chemical compositions of OLP and kerosene-like hydrocarbons fraction obtained in pilot scale determined by NMR and GC-MS. The results showed an OLP yield ranging from 62.90 to 66.57% (wt.), a coke yield ranging between 7.02 and 9.79% (wt.), and a gas yield ranging from 16.32 to 22.40% (wt.), showing a mean absolute percentage deviation of 2.12%, 11.88%, and 14.91% for OLP, gas, and coke yields respectively, obtained in different production scales (≈10:1000). The OLP acid values varied from 19.08 to 10.45mg KOH/g, the density between 0.820 and 0.835g/cm3, and the kinematic viscosity from 3.28 to 4.21mm2 s-1. The yield of kerosene-like hydrocarbons fraction average 14.90% (wt.) with an acid value of 5.43mg KOH/g, density of 0.740g/cm3, and kinematic viscosity of 0.66mm2 s-1, while those of light and heavy diesel-like hydrocarbons fractions average 32.01% (wt.) and 19.35% (wt.) respectively. FT-IR and NMR analysis of OLP and kerosene-like hydrocarbons fraction confirms the presence of functional groups characteristic of hydrocarbons (alkenes, alkanes, ring-containing alkenes, and ring-containing alkanes, and cycloalkanes) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, fatty alcohols, and dienes). The GC-MS analysis of OLP and kerosene-like hydrocarbons fraction obtained in pilot scale with 10% (wt.) Na2CO3 identified in OLP 76.97% hydrocarbons (39.44% alkenes, 31.91% alkanes, 4.12% ring-containing alkenes, and 1.50% ring-containing alkenes) and 23.03% oxygenates (12.14% carboxylic acids, 6.98% ketones, 1.90% fatty alcohols, and 2.01% dienes). The kerosene-like hydrocarbons fraction is composed by 94.62% (area) hydrocarbon (44.99% alkenes, 29.61% alkanes, 7.58% ring-containing alkenes, 6.15% ring-containing alkanes, 4.31% cycloalkanes, and 1.98% aromatics) and 5.38% (area) oxygenates (5.38% carboxylic acids), showing that catalytic cracking of scum from grease traps with 10% (wt.) Na2CO3 is technically feasible. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Da Mota S.A.P.,Federal University of Para | Mancio A.A.,Federal University of Para | Lhamas D.E.L.,Federal University of Para | de Abreu D.H.,Federal University of Para | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2014

In this work, the production of light diesel like fractions by thermal catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) has been systematically investigated in pilot scale. The cracking reactions were carried out in a reactor of 143L, operating in batch mode at 450°C and atmospheric pressure, using 20% (w/w) sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as catalyst. The reaction products called organic liquid products (OLP) were submitted to distillation using a laboratory scale column (Vigreux Column) of three stages in order to obtain light diesel like fractions. The catalyst has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, TGA and DTG. The OLP and the green diesel fractions have been physical-chemical characterized by officials AOCS, ASTM, and ABNT/NBR methods in terms of acid value, saponification value, density, refraction index, kinematics viscosity, copper strip corrosion, carbon residue, flash point, and distillation curve. The chemical composition of green diesel has been determined by FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The results show that the process yield on OLP was 65.86% (w/w) with an acid value of 1.02mg KOH/g OLP and kinematic viscosity of 1.48mm2/s, 30.24% (w/w) non-condensable gases, 2.5% (w/w) water, and 1.4% (w/w) coke. The yield on green diesel obtained by distillation average 24.9% (w/w), presenting an acid value of 1.68mg KOH/g green diesel and kinematic viscosity of 1.48mm2/s. The GC-MS analysis indicated that green diesel is composed of 91.38% (w/w) of hydrocarbons (31.27% normal paraffins, 54.44% olefins and 5.67% of naphthenics), and 8.62% (w/w) of oxygenates compounds. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Da Silva Almeida H.,Federal University of Para | Correa O.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Eid J.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Ribeiro H.J.,University of Sao Paulo | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2016

In this work, the residual fat material (scum) from grease traps were submitted to catalytic cracking in order to systematically investigate the feasibility to produce light and heavy diesel-like fractions. The cracking reactions were carried out in a stirred tank slurry reactor of 143 L, operating in batch mode at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere; using 5, 10, and 15% (wt.) activated Red Mud obtained by calcination at 1000 °C as catalyst. The catalyst was prepared and characterized by FT-IR, XRF, XRD, SEM, EDX, and BET. The organic liquid products (OLP) were physical chemistry analyzed for acid and saponification values, specific gravity, refractive index, kinematic viscosity, flash point, and copper strip corrosion using AOCS and ASTM methods. The chemical composition of OLP, light and heavy diesel-like fractions were determined by FT-IR and GC-MS. The results showed an average OLP yield ranging from 62.34 to 75.92% (wt.) with acid values between 84.65 and 109.55 mg KOH/g, saponification values between 104.93 and 132.52 mg KOH/g, and kinematic viscosity between 10.96 and 14.08 mm2 s-1. For OLP obtained with 5% (wt.) activated Red Mud, the yield of light diesel-like fraction average 6.39% (wt.) with an acid value of 126.24 mg KOH/g, while that of heavy diesel-like fraction average 41.33% (wt.) with an acid value of 94.18 mg KOH/g. FT-IR analysis of OLP and diesel-like fractions confirms the presence of functional groups characteristic of hydrocarbons (alkenes, alkanes, ring-containing alkanes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, and esters). The GC-MS analysis of OLP and light diesel-like fraction obtained with 15% (wt.) activated Red Mud confirms that OLP is composed by 37.49% of hydrocarbons (10.83% alkenes, 14.16% alkanes, and 12.50 ring-containing alkanes) and 62.51% of oxygenates (59.49% carboxylic acids, 1.14% ketones, and 1.88 allyl esters). The light diesel-like fraction is composed by 73.86% of hydrocarbons (29.98% alkenes, 29.38% alkanes, 11.75% ring-containing alkanes, and 2.78% aromatics), and 26.14% of oxygenates compounds (23.48% carboxylic acids and 2.66% ketones), showing that thermal-catalytic cracking of scum from grease traps using activated red mud as catalyst is technically feasible. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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