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Frederick, MD, United States

Aiello F.B.,Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation | Aiello F.B.,University of Chieti Pescara | Aiello F.B.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Graciotti L.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 4 more authors.
Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews | Year: 2013

Stem cells are able to generate both cells that differentiate and cells that remain undifferentiated but potentially have the same developmental program. The prolonged duration of the protective immune memory for infectious diseases such as polio, small pox, and measles, suggested that memory T cells may have stem cell properties. Understanding the molecular basis for the life-long persistence of memory T cells may be useful to project targeted therapies for immune deficiencies and infectious diseases and to formulate vaccines. In the last decade evidence from different laboratories shows that memory T cells may share self-renewal pathways with bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. In stem cells the intrinsic self-renewal activity, which depends on gene expression, is known to be modulated by extrinsic signals from the environment that may be tissue specific. These extrinsic signals for stemness of memory T cells include cytokines such as IL-7 and IL-15 and there are other cytokine signals for maintaining the cytokine signature (TH1, TH2, etc.) of memory T cells. Intrinsic and extrinsic pathways that might be common to bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells and memory T lymphocytes are discussed and related to self-renewal functions. © 2013. Source


Blees J.S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Schmid T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Schmid T.,Laboratory of Cancer Prevention | Thomas C.L.,NCI Inc | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2010

The novel tumor suppressor Pdcd4 affects tumorigenesis by inhibiting translation. Pdcd4 is phosphorylated and subsequently lost by proteasomal degradation in response to tumor-promoting conditions. Here, the authors describe the development of a reporter cell system to monitor the stability of Pdcd4. The phosphorylation-dependent degradation domain ("target") or an adjacent ("off-target") region of Pdcd4 was cloned into a luciferase expression system. The target constructs were responsive to Pdcd4 degrading conditions (e.g., TPA, p70 S6K1 overactivation), whereas the off-target constructs remained stable. The system was optimized for and shown to be reliable in a high-throughput compatible 384-well format. Screening of 15,275 pure compounds resulted in a hit rate of 0.30% (>50% inhibition of TPA-induced loss of signal, confirmed by reassay). Among the hits were inhibitors of previously identified critical signaling events for TPA-induced Pdcd4 degradation. One compound was identified to be nonspecific using the off-target control cell line. Screening of 135,678 natural product extracts yielded 42 confirmed, specific hits. Z' averaged 0.58 across 446 plates. Further characterization of active natural products and synthetic compounds is expected to identify novel Pdcd4 stabilizers that may be useful in targeting translation to prevent or treat cancers. © 2010 Society for Biomolecular Sciences. Source

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