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Resovi A.,Tumor Angiogenesis Unit | Pinessi D.,Tumor Angiogenesis Unit | Chiorino G.,Laboratory of Cancer Genomics | Taraboletti G.,Tumor Angiogenesis Unit
Matrix Biology

The multifaceted action of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) depends on its ability to physically interact with different ligands, including structural components of the extracellular matrix, other matricellular proteins, cell receptors, growth factors, cytokines and proteases. Through this network, TSP-1 regulates the ligand activity, availability and structure, ultimately tuning the cell response to environmental stimuli in a context-dependent manner, contributing to physiological and pathological processes. Complete mapping of the TSP-1 interactome is needed to understand its diverse functions and to lay the basis for the rational design of TSP-1-based therapeutic approaches. So far, large-scale approaches to identify TSP-1 ligands have been rarely used, but many interactions have been identified in small-scale studies in defined biological systems. This review, based on information from protein interaction databases and the literature, illustrates current knowledge of the TSP-1 interactome map. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Lefort K.,University of Lausanne | Brooks Y.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Ostano P.,Laboratory of Cancer Genomics | Cario-Andre M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 7 more authors.
EMBO Journal

Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are highly heterogeneous tumours, resulting from deranged expression of genes involved in squamous cell differentiation. Here we report that microRNA-34a (miR-34a) functions as a novel node in the squamous cell differentiation network, with SIRT6 as a critical target. miR-34a expression increases with keratinocyte differentiation, while it is suppressed in skin and oral SCCs, SCC cell lines, and aberrantly differentiating primary human keratinocytes (HKCs). Expression of this miRNA is restored in SCC cells, in parallel with differentiation, by reversion of genomic DNA methylation or wild-type p53 expression. In normal HKCs, the pro-differentiation effects of increased p53 activity or UVB exposure are miR-34a-dependent, and increased miR-34a levels are sufficient to induce differentiation of these cells both in vitro and in vivo. SIRT6, a sirtuin family member not previously connected with miR-34a function, is a direct target of this miRNA in HKCs, and SIRT6 down-modulation is sufficient to reproduce the miR-34a pro-differentiation effects. The findings are of likely biological significance, as SIRT6 is oppositely expressed to miR-34a in normal keratinocytes and keratinocyte-derived tumours. © 2013 European Molecular Biology Organization. Source

Busacca S.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Germano S.,University of Piemonte Orientale | De Cecco L.,Molecular Cancer Genetics Group | Rinaldi M.,University of Piemonte Orientale | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of target genes,andmaybehaveasoncogenesortumorsuppressors. Human malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos-related cancer, with poor prognosis and low median survival. Here we report, for the first time, a cross-evaluation of miRNA expression in mesothelioma (MPP-89, REN) and human mesothelial cells (HMC-telomerase reverse transcriptase). Microarray profiling, confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, revealed a differential expression of miRNAs between mesothelioma and mesothelial cells. In addition, a computational analysis combining miRNA and gene expression profiles allowed the accurate prediction of genes potentially targeted by dysregulated miRNAs. Several predicted genes belong to terms of Gene Ontology (GO) that are associated with the development and progression of mesothelioma. This suggests that miRNAsmaybe key players in mesothelioma oncogenesis. We further investigated miRNA expression on a panel of 24 mesothelioma specimens, representative of the three histotypes (epithelioid, biphasic, and sarcomatoid), by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29a, miR-30c, miR-30e-5p, miR-106a, and miR-143 was significantly associated with the histopathological subtypes. Notably, the reduced expression of two miRNAs(miR-17-5pandmiR-30c) correlated with better survival of patients with sarcomatoid subtype. Our preliminary analysis points at miRNAs as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers of mesothelioma, and suggests novel tools for the therapy of this malignancy. Source

Cutrupi S.,University of Turin | Reineri S.,University of Turin | Panetto A.,University of Turin | Grosso E.,University of Turin | And 9 more authors.

Pharmacological resistance is a serious threat to the clinical success of hormone therapy for breast cancer. The antiproliferative response to antagonistic drugs such as tamoxifen (Tam) critically depends on the recruitment of NCoR/SMRT corepressors to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) bound to estrogen target genes. Under certain circumstances, as demonstrated in the case of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) treatment, the protein Tab2 interacts with ERα/NCoR and causes dismissal of NCoR from these genes, leading to loss of the antiproliferative response. In Tam-resistant (TamR) ER-positive breast cancer cells, we observed that Tab2 presents a shift in mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE (SDS-PAGE) similar to that seen in MCF7 wt upon stimulation with IL-1β, suggesting constitutive activation. Accordingly, TamR treatment with Tab2-specific short interfering RNA, restored the antiproliferative response to Tam in these cells. As Tab2 is known to directly interact with the N-terminal domain of ERα, we synthesized a peptide composed of a 14-aa motif of this domain, which effectively competes with ERα/Tab2 interaction in pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, fused to the carrier TAT peptide to allow internalization. Treatment of TamR cells with this peptide resulted in partial recovery of the antiproliferative response to Tam, suggesting a strategy to revert pharmacological resistance in breast cancer. Silencing of Tab2 in TamR cells by siRNA caused modulation of a gene set related to the control of cell cycle and extensively connected to BRCA1 in a functional network. These genes were able to discern two groups of patients, from a published data set of Tam-treated breast cancer profiles, with significantly different disease-free survival. Altogether, our data implicate Tab2 as a mediator of resistance to endocrine therapy and as a potential new target to reverse pharmacological resistance and potentiate antiestrogen action. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Albino D.,Southern Research Institute | Longoni N.,Southern Research Institute | Curti L.,Southern Research Institute | Mello-Grand M.,Laboratory of Cancer Genomics | And 10 more authors.
Cancer Research

Cancer stem cells (CSC) play a significant role in tumor progression, disease recurrence, and treatment failure. Here, we show that the endogenously expressed ETS transcription factor ESE3/EHF controls prostate epithelial cell differentiation and stem-like potential. We found that loss of ESE3/EHF induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stem-like features, and tumor-initiating and metastatic properties in prostate epithelial cells, and reexpression of ESE3/EHF inhibited the stem-like properties and tumorigenic potential of prostate cancer cells. Mechanistically, ESE3/EHF repressed the expression of key EMT and CSC genes, including TWIST1, ZEB2, BMI1, and POU5F1. Analysis of human tissue microarrays showed that reduced ESE3/EHF expression is an early event in tumorigenesis, frequently occurring independently of other ETS gene alterations. Additional analyses linked loss of ESE3/EHF expression to a distinct group of prostate tumors with distinctive molecular and biologic characteristics, including increased expression of EMT and CSC genes. Low ESE3/EHF expression was also associated with increased biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer and reduced overall survival after prostatectomy. Collectively, our findings define a key role for ESE3/EHF in the development of a subset of prostate tumors and highlight the clinical importance of identifying molecularly defined tumor subgroups. ©2012 AACR. Source

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