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Monteverde M.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | Milano G.,Oncopharmacology Unit | Maffi M.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | Lattanzio L.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | And 4 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology

Background: Advances in the understanding of tumor biology have led to the development of targeted therapies as monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) in clinical oncology. Among their suggested mechanisms of action monoclonal antibodies (IgG1) selectively directed against tumor membrane receptors mediate of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by triggering Fc-γRIII on natural killer (NK) cells. Methods: This study reviews the clinical context of ADCC measurement with a particular focus on EGFR targeting and describes an ex vivo ADCC method applied to MoAbs (cetuximab and panitumumab), against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The test performance was evaluated on different target cells lines (CAL166, A431, HNO91, CAL27), with different effector cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells or natural killers -NK-) and in various experimental conditions, in order to establish a truly clinically applicable method. Results: Using the experience available in the published literature, we optimized all variables involved in the experimental design: target cells type, numbers and ratio target cells and NK cells (effector cells) per well, time of exposure and repeatability. Conclusion: ADCC measurement may be of clinical relevance in the context of treatment with MoAbs. This study describes a non-radioactive method which has proven satisfactory in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility, feasibility and cost effectiveness for the measurement of ADCC activity mediated by NK with an orientation towards the EGFR target. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Lattanzio L.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | Tonissi F.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | Torta I.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | Gianello L.,S. Croce General Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Investigational New Drugs

Introduction Uveal melanoma (UM) is a highly vascularised tumour generally treated with radiotherapy (RT). A recent preclinical study from our group [1] demonstrated that RT-Associated anti-Angiogenic therapy has more than additive effects on cell growth, by modulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. The pro-Angiogenic interleukin-8 (IL-8) is highly expressed in both tumour and endothelial cells and is associated with resistance to VEGF-targeted therapies in various tumour types. The aim of this study is to investigate IL-8 release in response to the anti-Angiogenic drug bevacizumab (AV) and RT given alone and in combination. Material and methods The human ocular melanoma cells (OCM-1) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were grown in transwell plates. AV was administered at a 2,500 μg/ml dose and cells were irradiated with a 6 Gy dose. IL-8 concentrations were determined by ELISA assay. Protein expression was detected by western blot. Results AV alone or in combination with RT reduces VEGF levels in both cell lines when co-cultured; unexpectedly, RT alone did not increase VEGF levels. In transwell plate AV alone lowered IL-8 secretion in both cell lines. This inhibitory effect was reduced when co-cultured cells are treated with AV + RT, suggesting that RT-induced VEGF may reactivate IL-8 secretion, enhancing an alternative pathway to sustain tumour angiogenesis. Conclusions These data indicate that the UM microenvironment, beside VEGF, can activate IL-8 signalling as an alternative pro-Angiogenic pathway. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Vivenza D.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | Feola M.,Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Heart Failure Unit | Garrone O.,Medical Oncology | Monteverde M.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Markers

Background: Anthracyclines are among the most active drugs against breast cancer, but can exert cardiotoxic effects eventually resulting in congestive heart failure (CHF). Identifying breast cancer patients at high risk of developing cardiotoxicity after anthracycline therapy would be of value in guiding the use of these agents. Aims: We determined whether polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family of phase II detoxification enzymes might be useful predictors of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) kinetics and risk of developing CHF. We sought correlations between the development of cardiotoxicity and gene polymorphisms in 48 patients with early breast cancer treated with adjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy. Methods: We analyzed the following polymorphisms: p.Met235Thr and p.Thr174Met in angiotensinogen (AGT), Ins/Del in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), A1166C in angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AGTR1A), c.-344T>C in aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), p.Ile105Val in GSTP1. Additionally, we analyzed the presence or absence of the GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes. A LVEF <50% was detected at least once during the 3 years of follow-up period in 13 out of 48 patients (27.1%). Conclusion: RAAS gene polymorphisms were not significantly associated with the development of cardiotoxicity. GSTM1 may be useful as a biomarker of higher risk of cardiotoxicity, as demonstrated in our cohort of patients (p=0.147). © 2013 Wichtig Editore. Source

Garrone O.,Medical Oncology | Crosetto N.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Nigro C.L.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | Catzeddu T.,Medical Oncology | And 4 more authors.
Cardiovascular Toxicology

Anthracyclines are active drugs against breast cancer, but can exert cardiotoxic effects. We analyzed the association between the kinetics of various biomarkers during chemotherapy, and the risk of subsequent cardiac toxicity. 50 patients (49 women) with early breast cancer surgically treated and eligible to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) together with the plasma concentration of several blood markers was measured at the beginning of anthracycline chemotherapy (t 0), 5 months (t1), 16 months (t2), 28 months (t3), and 40 months later (t4). A single measured LVEF value less than 50% or a clinically overt congestive heart failure (CHF) was considered cardiotoxic effects. We tested whether the kinetics of LVEF and blood biomarkers measured during chemotherapy was predictive of subsequent cardiotoxicity and overall cardiac fitness. The left ventricular ejection fraction measured at the end of treatment as well as the rate of change of hemoglobin concentration during anthracycline-based chemotherapy predicted cardiotoxicity in a 3-year follow-up period. When LVEF at the end of chemotherapy was lower than 53% or hemoglobin blood concentration declined more than 0.33 g/dL/month during chemotherapy, the odds ratio of subsequent cardiotoxicity was 37.3 and 18, respectively. The specificity of these two tests was 93.3% and 80%, whereas the sensitivity was 90.9 and 81.2%, respectively. Testing the rate of change of hemoglobin concentration during anthracycline-based chemotherapy, as well as the left ventricular ejection fraction at the end of treatment, seems a powerful method to assess the effects of anthracyclines on cardiac fitness and identify patients at high risk of CHF. Further validation of these tests on a large cohort of patients and cost-benefit analysis should be encouraged. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Lattanzio L.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | Tonissi F.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | Monteverde M.,Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology | Milano G.,Oncopharmacology Unit | And 2 more authors.
Anti-Cancer Drugs

To examine the effect and the molecular mechanisms of the combined treatment of the somatostatin (SST) analogue octreotide with docetaxel: analysis of proliferation, apoptosis and migration in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3, either sensitive (PC3wt) or made resistant to docetaxel (PC3R). We examined the effect of the two drugs individually or in combination on cell proliferation and migration by analysis of apoptosis and cell cycle proteins. The role of octreotide in modulating P-glycoprotein function was examined together with the modulation of SST receptors type 2 and 5 (SSTR2 and SSTR5). We observed an enhanced effect of docetaxel and octreotide given in combination or in sequence compared with either agent alone; this result was particularly evident when docetaxel was given before octreotide in PC3wt and when the two drugs were given together in PC3R cells. In contrast to lanreotide, our data indicate that octreotide does not act as a P-glycoprotein inhibitor in PC3R cells. A role of docetaxel and combined treatment in regulating SSTR2, SSTR5, proliferation and apoptosis gene expression is suggested as the possible mechanism for the enhanced effect observed. In addition, an evaluation of the effect of the combined treatment on cellular migration was examined, showing a moderate loss of invasive properties in PC3R cells. The present results confirm that SST analogues may be combined with docetaxel to increase the antitumour effect in patients with advanced prostate carcinoma. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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