Laboratory of Cancer Biology

Oxford, United Kingdom

Laboratory of Cancer Biology

Oxford, United Kingdom
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Zalmas L.-P.,Laboratory of Cancer Biology | Coutts A.S.,Laboratory of Cancer Biology | Helleday T.,A-Life Medical | Thangue N.B.L.,Laboratory of Cancer Biology
Cell Cycle | Year: 2013

The cellular response to DNA damage, mediated by the DNA repair process, is essential in maintaining the integrity and stability of the genome. E2F-7 is an atypical member of the E2F family with a role in negatively regulating transcription and cell cycle progression under DNA damage. Surprisingly, we found that E2F-7 makes a transcription-independent contribution to the DNA repair process, which involves E2F-7 locating to and binding damaged DNA. Further, E2F-7 recruits CtBP and HDAC to the damaged DNA, altering the local chromatin environment of the DNA lesion. Importantly, the E2F-7 gene is a target for somatic mutation in human cancer and tumor-derived mutant alleles encode proteins with compromised transcription and DNA repair properties. Our results establish that E2F-7 participates in 2 closely linked processes, allowing it to directly couple the expression of genes involved in the DNA damage response with the DNA repair machinery, which has relevance in human malignancy. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

Staff S.,Laboratory of Cancer Biology | Staff S.,University of Tampere | Tolonen T.,Fimlab Laboratories | Laasanen S.-L.,University of Tampere | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Gynecological Pathology | Year: 2014

Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer an increased lifetime risk for breast and ovarian cancer. Increased lifetime ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers can be substantially decreased by risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), which also provides material for molecular research on early pathogenesis of serous ovarian cancer. RRSO studies have suggested fallopian tube as a primary site of serous high-grade ovarian cancer. In this study, the nuclear expression levels of γ-H2AX and p53 using immunohistochemical (IHC) study was quantitatively assessed in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium derived from RRSOs in 29 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and in 1 patient with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer but showing an unknown BRCA status. Both p53 and γ-H2AX nuclear staining levels were significantly higher in BRCA1/2 mutation-positive fallopian tube epithelium compared with the control fallopian tube epithelium (P<0.006 and P=0.011, respectively). Nuclear expression levels of p53 and γ-H2AX were similar between the BRCA1/2 mutation-positive ovarian epithelium and controls. Both γ-H2AX and p53 showed significantly higher nuclear expression levels in BRCA1/2 mutation-positive fallopian tube epithelium compared with BRCA1/2 mutation-positive ovarian epithelium (P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively). BRCA1/2 mutation-positive fallopian tube epithelium showed a positive correlation between the γ-H2AX and p53 nuclear expression levels (Pearson r=0.508, P=0.003). Our results of quantitative nuclear p53 and γ-H2AX expression levels in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium derived from RRSO in high-risk patients support the previously suggested role of fallopian tube epithelium serving as a possible site of initial serous ovarian carcinogenesis. © 2014 International Society of Gynecological Pathologists.

New M.,Laboratory of Cancer Biology | New M.,University of Oxford | New M.,Churchill Hospital | Olzscha H.,Laboratory of Cancer Biology | And 21 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2013

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is an emergent anticancer target, and HR23B is a biomarker for response to HDAC inhibitors. We show here that HR23B has impacts on two documented effects of HDAC inhibitors; HDAC inhibitors cause apoptosis in cells expressing high levels of HR23B, whereas in cells with low level expression, HDAC inhibitor treatment is frequently associated with autophagy. The mechanism responsible involves the interaction of HDAC6 with HR23B, which downregulates HR23B and thereby reduces the level of ubiquitinated substrates targeted to the proteasome, ultimately desensitising cells to apoptosis. Significantly, the ability of HDAC6 to downregulate HR23B occurs independently of its deacetylase activity. An analysis of the HDAC6 interactome identified HSP90 as a key effector of HDAC6 on HR23B levels. Our results define a regulatory mechanism that involves the interplay between HR23B and HDAC6 that influences the biological outcome of HDAC inhibitor treatment. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Saito Y.,National Cancer Center Hospital East | Saito Y.,Laboratory of Cancer Biology | Yasunaga M.,National Cancer Center Hospital East | Kuroda J.-i.,National Cancer Center Hospital East | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Human pancreatic cancer is refractory to chemotherapy partly because of blockage to penetration of anticancer agents. This issue must be taken into account particularly for the drug delivery system (DDS). The aim of the present study is to investigate how NK012 (SN-38-incorporating polymeric micelles) categorised as DDS exerts its antitumour effect in an orthotopic pancreatic tumour model compared with gemcitabine and irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11), a low-molecular-weight prodrug of a 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38). The maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) of NK012 (30 mg/kg/d), CPT-11 (66.7 mg/kg/d) and gemcitabine (16.5 mg/kg/d) were administered to mice bearing human pancreatic cancer cell (SUIT-2) xenografts implanted orthotopically. Antitumour effects of these compounds were evaluated. Drug distribution within the tumour was examined by fluorescence microscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). NK012 exerted potent antitumour effects compared with CPT-11 and gemcitabine. A high concentration of NK012 and SN-38 released from NK012 had been observed until 192 h. On the other hand, SN-38 converted from CPT-11 was detected only 1 h postinjection. Fluorescence from NK012 was detected up to 48 h, whereas that from CPT-11 almost disappeared by 24 h postinjection. NK012 appeared to exert potent antitumour activity against intractable stroma-rich orthotopic pancreatic tumour xenografts due to its sufficient accumulation followed by the effective sustained release of SN-38 from NK012. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Laboratory of Cancer Biology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Immunology and cell biology | Year: 2012

Reversible acetylation mediated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) influences a broad repertoire of physiological processes, many of which are aberrantly controlled in tumor cells. As HDAC inhibition prompts tumor cells to enter apoptosis, small-molecule HDAC inhibitors have been developed as a new class of mechanism-based anti-cancer agent, many of which have entered clinical trials. Although the clinical picture is evolving and the precise utility of HDAC inhibitors remains to be determined, it is noteworthy that certain tumor types undergo a favorable response, in particular hematological malignancies. Vorinostat and romidepsin have been approved for treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in patients with progressive, persistent or recurrent disease. Here, we discuss developments in our understanding of molecular events that underlie the anti-cancer effects of HDAC inhibitors and relate this information to the emerging clinical picture for the application of these inhibitors in the treatment of cancer.

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