Ōsaka, Japan
Ōsaka, Japan

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Choi H.-J.,Changwon National University | Kaneko S.,Fukushima University | Yokogawa M.,Laboratory of Botany | Song G.-P.,Jeju Environment Research Institute Co. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Biology | Year: 2013

The conservation status of Euchresta japonica Hook. f. ex Regel in Korea was investigated, with an emphasis on its genetic diversity. From field surveys, we obtained the only locality record for a wild population in Korea, which contained eight individuals. Genotyping was performed using nine microsatellite markers for all 20 remaining individuals, including those in ex situ collections. Among nine microsatellite loci that amplified within this group, five showed polymorphism with low hererozygosities, and a total of 12 multilocus genotypes were detected. Wild-specific alleles were detected in two individuals, and ex situ-specific alleles were detected in six individuals. Five individuals proved to have individual-specific alleles. The Korean population was also distinguished from the previously reported Japanese population by different alleles and higher diversity. To conserve this species more effectively in Korea, we recommend the following: (1) fencing the remaining wild population; (2) no relocation of wild individuals, as nine ex situ plants are already available; (3) complete ex situ conservation of all genetic diversity via clonal propagation of wild individuals; and (4) continuous protection and monitoring of the wild population. © 2013 Korean Society of Plant Biologists and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Worth J.R.P.,University of Tasmania | Yokogawa M.,Laboratory of Botany | Isagi Y.,Kyoto University
Journal of Plant Research | Year: 2014

The Japanese endemic conifer Sciadopitys verticillata is one of the most phylogenetically isolated species of all plants. Occurring in small and scattered populations, the species is currently classified as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and as Vulnerable in three prefectures of Japan. This study investigated two major factors that should impact the genetic structure of the species at both the nuclear and organelle DNA level, the mating system and the inheritance of both the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. The mating system is crucial to determining the degree of outcrossing of plant species and thus should have a key role in shaping the species' population level genetic diversity and gene flow between populations but as yet has not been studied in S. verticillata. Nine mother trees and their seedling progeny from two natural populations were genotyped using genetic markers from three plant genomes (eight nuclear microsatellites and DNA sequence for the chloroplast and mitochondria). Using a maximum likelihood method implemented in the software MLTR, the study found an outcrossing rate in the seedling stage of 0.49 and 0.79 for Aburazaka and Mount Shirotori populations, respectively, and an average of 0.66 at the species level. These outcrossing rates were low for conifers and therefore may have potential deleterious implications for the conservation of the species. The test of organelle inheritance supported paternal transmission of both the chloroplast and mitochondria consistent with previous microscopic evidence. © 2014 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer Japan.


Worth J.R.P.,University of Tasmania | Yokogawa M.,Laboratory of Botany | Perez-Figueroa A.,University of Vigo | Tsumura Y.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2014

A major goal of conservation genetics is to determine which specific populations are most crucial for in situ or ex situ conservation. Genetic divergence and diversity are the two foundations by which priorities for conservation are typically determined. However, these measures may be confounded when past bottlenecks reduce genetic diversity of populations but also lead to their divergence. This study examines the potential conflicts in population prioritization for a relictual Japanese endemic conifer, Sciadopitys verticillata using nuclear microsatellites. High genetic structuring at the nuclear level compared to many other conifers (Fst = 0.129) was observed across the species range along with significant differences in genetic diversity between southern and northern populations. Conflict among genetic diversity and divergence population prioritization methods was observed in populations at the southwestern range edge of Kyushu and Chugoku, which were the most genetically distinct but also harboured the lowest diversity (Kyushu, He = 0.288, Ar = 2.172, and Chugoku, He = 0.222, Ar = 2.010). These populations contained only a subset of the genetic diversity found in Central Honshu and the Kii Peninsula (Central Honshu, He = 0.347, Ar = 2.707 and the Kii Peninsula, He = 0.337, Ar = 2.683), suggesting a reduction in genetic diversity as a result of bottlenecks. To determine if these highly bottlenecked populations in southwestern Japan are on the trajectory to extinction, or, conversely, if they harbour important genetic variation that has been fixed at the southwestern edge of the species range, common garden experiments are recommended in the future. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Al Askari G.,Laboratory of Botany | Al Askari G.,Mohammed V University | Kahouadji A.,Laboratory of Botany | Khedid K.,Mohammed V University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2013

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Ficus carica collected from different regions in Morocco were screened for their antimicrobial activity against sixteen pathogenic bacterial strains and eight pathogenic yeast strains using agar well diffusion method and the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration was done by microtitration technique. The result obtained showed that the aqueous extract was active against Grampositive bacteria more than Gram-negative bacteria but not active against yeast strains. Ethanolic extract had strong antibmicrobial activity, the maximum zone of inhibition was noted for Fez extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis (21mm) with MIC 25μg/ml and for Al Jadida extract against Candida famata (14.7mm) with MIC 50μg/ml. These results indicate to some benefits of fig leaves which can use to treatment the microbial infection.

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