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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Saba E.S.,INFYNITY Biomarkers | Saba E.S.,Laboratory of Bacteriology Virology | Gueyffier L.,INFYNITY Biomarkers | Dichtel-Danjoy M.-L.,INFYNITY Biomarkers | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Cross-reactive antibodies are characterized by their recognition of antigens that are different from the trigger immunogen. This happens when the similarity between two different antigenic determinants becomes adequate enough to enable a specific binding with such cross-reactive antibodies. In the present manuscript, we report the presence, at an "abnormal" high frequency, of antibodies in blood samples from French human subjects cross-reacting with a synthetic-peptide antigen derived from a Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) protein sequence. As the vector of T. cruzi is virtually confined to South America, the parasite is unlikely to be the trigger immunogen of the cross-reactive antibodies detected in France. At present, the cross-reactive antibodies are measured by using an in-house ELISA method that employs the T. cruzi -peptide antigen. However, to underline their cross-reactive characteristics, we called these antibodies "Trypanosoma cruzi Cross Reactive Antibodies" or TcCRA. To validate their cross-reactive nature, these antibodies were affinity-purified from plasma of healthy blood donor and were then shown to specifically react with the T. cruzi parasite by immunofluorescence. Seroprevalence of TcCRA was estimated at 45% in serum samples of French blood donors while the same peptide-antigen reacts with about 96% of T. cruzi -infected Brazilian individuals. In addition, we compared the serology of TcCRA to other serologies such as HSV 1/2, EBV, HHV-6, CMV, VZV, adenovirus, parvovirus B19, mumps virus, rubella virus, respiratory syncytial virus, measles and enterovirus. No association was identified to any of the tested viruses. Furthermore, we tested sera from different age groups for TcCRA and found a progressive acquisition starting from early childhood. Our findings show a large seroprevalence of cross-reactive antibodies to a well-defined T. cruzi antigen and suggest they are induced by a widely spread immunogen, acquired from childhood. The etiology of TcCRA and their clinical relevance still need to be investigated. © 2013 Saba et al.

Reibel F.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Reibel F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Reibel F.,National Reference Center for Mycobacteria | Chauffour A.,Paris-Sorbonne University | And 14 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Between 20 and 30 bacteriologically confirmed cases of leprosy are diagnosed each year at the French National Reference Center for mycobacteria. Patients are mainly immigrants from various endemic countries or living in French overseas territories. We aimed at expanding data regarding the geographical distribution of the SNP genotypes of the M. leprae isolates from these patients. Methodology/Principal findings: Skin biopsies were obtained from 71 leprosy patients diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2013. Data regarding age, sex and place of birth and residence were also collected. Diagnosis of leprosy was confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli and/or amplification by PCR of the M. leprae-specific RLEP region. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), present in the M. leprae genome at positions 14 676, 1 642 875 and 2 935 685, were determined with an efficiency of 94% (67/71). Almost all patients were from countries other than France where leprosy is still prevalent (n = 31) or from French overseas territories (n = 36) where leprosy is not totally eradicated, while only a minority (n = 4) was born in metropolitan France but have lived in other countries. SNP type 1 was predominant (n = 33), followed by type 3 (n = 17), type 4 (n = 11) and type 2 (n = 6). SNP types were concordant with those previously reported as prevalent in the patients’ countries of birth. SNP types found in patients born in countries other than France (Comoros, Haiti, Benin, Congo, Sri Lanka) and French overseas territories (French Polynesia, Mayotte and La Réunion) not covered by previous work correlated well with geographical location and history of human settlements. Conclusions/Significance: The phylogenic analysis of M. leprae strains isolated in France strongly suggests that French leprosy cases are caused by SNP types that are (a) concordant with the geographic origin or residence of the patients (non-French countries, French overseas territories, metropolitan France) or (b) more likely random in regions where diverse migration flows occurred. © 2015 Reibel et al.

Riabi S.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | Riabi S.,Laboratory of Bacteriology Virology | Harrath R.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | Harrath R.,Laboratory of Bacteriology Virology | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2014

Background: Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF) and Coxsackievirus-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) have been identified as cellular receptors for Coxsackie B viruses (CV-B). The aim of this study is to elucidate the different binding properties of CV-B serotypes and to find out if there are any amino acid changes that could be associated to the different phenotypes.Twenty clinical CV-B isolates were tested on CaCo-2 cell line using anti-DAF (BRIC216) and anti-CAR (RmcB) antibodies. CV-B3 Nancy prototype strain and a recombinant strain (Rec, CV-B3/B4) were tested in parallel. The P1 genomic region of 12 CV-B isolates from different serotypes was sequenced and the Trans-Epithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) along with the virus growth cycle was measured. Results: Infectivity assays revealed clear differences between CV-B isolates with regard to their interactions with DAF and CAR. All tested CV-B isolates showed an absolute requirement for CAR but varied in their binding to DAF. We also reported that for some isolates of CV-B, DAF attachment was not adapted. Genetic analysis of the P1 region detected multiple differences in the deduced amino acid sequences. Conclusion: Within a given serotype, variations exist in the capacity of virus isolates to bind to specific receptors, and variants with different additional ligands may arise during infection in humans as well as in tissue culture. © 2014Riabi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Papa Mze N.,Laboratory of Bacteriology Virology | Ndiaye Y.D.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Diedhiou C.K.,Laboratory of Bacteriology Virology | Rahamatou S.,Laboratory of National Malaria Control Programme | And 14 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: The World Health Organization has recommended rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for use in the diagnosis of suspected malaria cases. In addition to providing quick and accurate detection of Plasmodium parasite proteins in the blood, these tests can be used as sources of DNA for further genetic studies. As sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is used currently for intermittent presumptive treatment of pregnant women in both Senegal and in the Comoros Islands, resistance mutations in the dhfr and dhps genes were investigated using DNA extracted from RDTs. Methods: The proximal portion of the nitrocellulose membrane of discarded RDTs was used for DNA extraction. This genomic DNA was amplified using HRM to genotype the molecular markers involved in resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine: dhfr (51, 59, 108, and 164) and dhps (436, 437, 540, 581, and 613). Additionally, the msp1 and msp2 genes were amplified to determine the average clonality between Grande-Comore (Comoros) and Thiès (Senegal). Results: A total of 201 samples were successfully genotyped at all codons by HRM; whereas, in 200 msp1 and msp2 genes were successfully amplified and genotyped by nested PCR. A high prevalence of resistance mutations were observed in the dhfr gene at codons 51, 59, and 108 as well as in the dhps gene at codons 437 and 436. A novel mutant in dhps at codon positions 436Y/437A was observed. The dhfr I164L codon and dhps K540 and dhps A581G codons had 100 % wild type alleles in all samples. Conclusion: The utility of field-collected RDTs was validated as a source of DNA for genetic studies interrogating frequencies of drug resistance mutations, using two different molecular methods (PCR and High Resolution Melting). RDTs should not be discarded after use as they can be a valuable source of DNA for genetic and epidemiological studies in sites where filter paper or venous blood collected samples are nonexistent. © 2015 Papa Mze et al.

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