Yaoundé, Cameroon
Yaoundé, Cameroon

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Habara M.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Tamanuki M.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Ishikawa S.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Takemitsu H.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | And 6 more authors.
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2015

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) 40 and 120 are members of the Free Fatty Acid (FFA) receptor group and are termed FFAR1 and FFAR4, respectively. The aim of this study was to clone cat GPR40 and GPR120 cDNAs in several tissues. There was high sequence homology to other mammalian GPR40 and GPR120, with encoding 320 and 361 amino acid residues, respectively. Cat GPR40 encoded extra 21 amino acid residues in the C-terminal cytoplasmic region. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed expression of GPR40 mRNA in the duodenum, liver and pancreas. The GPR120 mRNA was expressed in adipose tissues, cerebral cortex and colon. In conclusion, GPR40 and GPR120 were well conserved and were expressed in cat tissues with different distribution patterns. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.


Adachi A.A.,Kinki University | Fujioka A.,Kinki University | Nagano M.,Kinki University | Masumoto K.-H.,Kinki University | And 4 more authors.
Zoological Science | Year: 2013

The mammalian circadian oscillator is composed of interacting positive and negative transcription events. The clock proteins PER1 and PER2 play essential roles in a negative limb of the feedback loop that generates the circadian rhythm in mammals. In addition, the proteins CLOCK and BMAL1 (also known as ARNTL) form a heterodimer that drives the Per genes via the E-box consensus sequences within their promoter regions. In the present study, we demonstrate that Id2 is involved in stabilization of the amplitudes of the circadian oscillations by suppressing transcriptional activation of clock genes Clock and Bmal1. Id2 shows dynamic oscillation in the SCN, with a peak in the late subjective night. Under constant dark conditions (DD), Id2-/- mice showed no apparent difference in locomotor activity, however, under constant light conditions (LL), Id2-/- mice exhibit aberrant locomotor activity, with lower circadian oscillation amplitudes, although the free running periods in Id2-/- mice show no differences from those in either wild type or heterozygous mice. Id2-/- animals also exhibit upregulation of Per1 in constant light, during both the subjective night and day. In wild type mice, Id2 is upregulated by constant light exposure during the subjective night. We propose that Id2 expression in the SCN contributes to maintenance of dynamic circadian oscillations. © 2013 Zoological Society of Japan.


Anestis A.,Laboratory of Animal Physiology | Portner H.O.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Karagiannis D.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Angelidis P.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | And 2 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2010

In the context of climate change the present work aimed to illustrate whether the energetic and metabolic pattern of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis will be affected by increase in the temperature of seawater. Moreover we examined whether an outbreak of Marteilia sp. infestation as a result of increase in sea water temperature will impair the energetic balance of mussels. M. galloprovincialis was acclimated at 18 °C, 24 °C, 26 °C and 28 °C for 30 days and the energetic pattern of its tissues was estimated by determining the factor Scope for Growth (SFG), while the metabolic pattern of mussels was estimated by determining the activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The decrease in PK activity and the decrease in the ratio PK/PEPCK indicated an activation of anaerobic component of metabolism during acclimation of mussels at temperature 24 °C. Αt temperatures higher than 24 °C the values of SFG turned negative probably associated with a significant reduction in clearance rate. Compared to the non infected mussels, the SFG values of infected mussels were significantly lower (P < 0.05). These differences were attributed to the higher filtration rate and the lower absorption efficiency detected in the infected mussels. Also the degree of SFG reduction is dependent on the intensity levels of infection by Marteilia sp. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Selmi S.,Laboratory of Animal Physiology | El-Fazaa S.,Laboratory of Animal Physiology | Gharbi N.,Laboratory of Animal Physiology
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2015

The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of malathion exposure through maternal milk on oxidative stress, functional an metabolic parameters in kidney and liver of rat pups. We found that lactational exposure to malation (200 mg/kg, body weight (bw)) induced an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase in malondialdhyde (MDA) content, reflecting lipoperoxidation, a decrease in thiol groups content as well as depletion of enzyme activities as a superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) on postnatal days (Pnds) 21 and 51. Moreover, the current study showed that malathion induced liver and kidney dysfunctions demonstrated by considerable increase in phosphatase alkaline (PAL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities as well as total and direct bilirubin, creatinine urea and acid uric contents. We also observed an increase in triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the plasma of treated rat pups. These findings evidenced that malathion exposure during lactation through maternal milk of rats pups induced kidney and liver oxidative stress as well as functional and metabolic disorders that play a role in the development of others pathologies as cardiovascular diseases and cancers. © SAGE Publications.


Kamgang R.,Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies IMPM | Kamgang R.,Laboratory of Animal Physiology | Foyet A.,Laboratory of Animal Physiology | Essame J.-L.,Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies IMPM | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Objectives: To investigate the effect of Kalanchoe crenata methanolic fraction (MEKC) on proteinuria, glucosuria, and some other biochemical parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats. Materials and Methods: Ether anesthetized rats received three intravenous injections (days 0, 14, and 28) of 2 mg/kg body weight of adriamycin. Repeated doses of the extract (0, 50, and 68 mg/kg b.w.) and losartan (10 mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally once daily, for 6 weeks, to these rats. Kidney functions were assessed through biochemical parameters. Results: MEKC decreased proteinuria and also the urinary excretion of creatinine, glucose, and urea significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in serum levels of creatinine, urea, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, conjugate bilirubin, and alanine transaminase level was also recorded in nephropathic rats, but plasma levels of uric acid and glucose remained unchanged. Moreover, the plant extract markedly (P < 0.05) increased plasma sodium and decreased (P < 0.01) the urinary sodium and potassium levels. Conclusions: The results indicated that the treatment with the methanolic fraction of K. crenata may improve proteinuria and all other symptoms due to adriamycin-induced nephropathy and, more than losartan, could ameliorate kidney and liver functions. K. crenata could be a potential source of new oral antinephropathic drug.


Halima B.A.,Laboratory of Animal Physiology | Sarra K.,Laboratory of Animal Physiology | Kais R.,Laboratory of Animal Physiology | Salwa E.,Laboratory of Animal Physiology | Najoua G.,Laboratory of Animal Physiology
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2010

Nicotine, a major toxic component of tobacco, has been identified as an important risk factor for infant and children diseases. It is concentrated in breast milk and is absorbed by the infant. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation on breast-fed rats and at the pubertal age by measuring biomarkers of oxidative stress. Particularly, a new parameter, the thiol concentration was evaluated. Two groups of lactating Wistar rats were used. For the first group, female rats were given an intraperitoenal injection of nicotine or saline (2 mg/kg per day) during lactation. For the second group, we reproduced the same process described above and then the female and male pups were separately kept after weaning without any treatment until the puberty (at 45 days of age). In the liver and lung of the offspring, we examined the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, the thiol concentration, and the activities of two antioxidant enzymes: superoxyde dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). In the plasma, alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities were measured. For rats aged 21 days, the treatment significantly reduced the thiol concentration, SOD, and CAT activities but increased MDA level, AST, and ALT activities. For rats aged 45 days, the males and females did not react the same way. In fact, the males were more affected. These results indicate that maternal nicotine exposure during the lactation period induces oxidative stress in the liver and lung of lactating offspring, which is maintained until the puberty, especially for the male rats. © The Author(s) 2010.


PubMed | Laboratory of Animal Physiology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicology and industrial health | Year: 2015

The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of malathion exposure through maternal milk on oxidative stress, functional an metabolic parameters in kidney and liver of rat pups. We found that lactational exposure to malation (200 mg/kg, body weight (bw)) induced an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase in malondialdhyde (MDA) content, reflecting lipoperoxidation, a decrease in thiol groups content as well as depletion of enzyme activities as a superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) on postnatal days (Pnds) 21 and 51. Moreover, the current study showed that malathion induced liver and kidney dysfunctions demonstrated by considerable increase in phosphatase alkaline (PAL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities as well as total and direct bilirubin, creatinine urea and acid uric contents. We also observed an increase in triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the plasma of treated rat pups. These findings evidenced that malathion exposure during lactation through maternal milk of rats pups induced kidney and liver oxidative stress as well as functional and metabolic disorders that play a role in the development of others pathologies as cardiovascular diseases and cancers.


PubMed | Laboratory of Animal Physiology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Behavioural processes | Year: 2014

In a simulated open-field situation we tried to obtain information about the ability of tomcats to distinguish between urine marks of differing ages. Reactions to these marks were sniffing, sniffing intensively and Flehmen. The variables we chose to demonstrate a possible discriminatory ability between urine marks of different ages were: (1) latency, i.e. the time that elapses between the cats release in the observation arena and the finding of a urine mark, (2) the number of occurrences of Flehmen after sniffing, (3) the frequency of sniffing and Flehmen, (4) the duration of the first sniffing bout and (5) the occurrence of a return to the same scent source during an observation. Our most striking observation was that fresh urine marks (maximum age, 4 hours) were explored first, before marks more than one day old; the other variables did not differ dramatically although we observed a general decline in the intensity of the reaction with increasing age of the urine marks. We also found that the visual characteristics of a urine mark play an important role, particularly in the occurrence of returns. Furthermore we found that the reactions of sniffing and Flehmen are linked with an attempt to identify the donor. All results, including the possible influence upon marking behaviour of the presence or absence of fresh marks, are discussed in the light of the use of a time plan spacing mechanism by the domestic tomcat as had been suggested in earlier literature.


PubMed | Laboratory of Animal Physiology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Behavioural processes | Year: 2014

The dominance relationships in a group of adult male cats were studied by means of paired encounters in an observation arena which was equally familiar to both animals. In order to develop a good operational technique a pilot study was undertaken. Dominance relationships were determined by using criteria based upon approach/withdrawal or threatening postures similar to those described by Leyhausen (1973). During the encounters two conflicting tendencies seemed to appear: efforts to avoid confrontation and agonistic interactions. The intensity of the reaction varied from pair to pair. Some kinds of behaviour, not considered to be agonistic (such as exploration and, to a lesser extent, rubbing and urine marking), were performed more frequently by the dominant male. Furthermore it was shown that in the course of the experiments, the number of encounters in which no dominance could be assessed increased, probably due to increasing familiarity. The results of a pilot study on the effect of castration and testosterone treatment upon dominance relationships are also presented.


PubMed | Laboratory of Animal Physiology
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Human & experimental toxicology | Year: 2010

Nicotine, a major toxic component of tobacco, has been identified as an important risk factor for infant and children diseases. It is concentrated in breast milk and is absorbed by the infant. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation on breast-fed rats and at the pubertal age by measuring biomarkers of oxidative stress. Particularly, a new parameter, the thiol concentration was evaluated. Two groups of lactating Wistar rats were used. For the first group, female rats were given an intraperitoenal injection of nicotine or saline (2 mg/kg per day) during lactation. For the second group, we reproduced the same process described above and then the female and male pups were separately kept after weaning without any treatment until the puberty (at 45 days of age). In the liver and lung of the offspring, we examined the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, the thiol concentration, and the activities of two antioxidant enzymes: superoxyde dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). In the plasma, alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities were measured. For rats aged 21 days, the treatment significantly reduced the thiol concentration, SOD, and CAT activities but increased MDA level, AST, and ALT activities. For rats aged 45 days, the males and females did not react the same way. In fact, the males were more affected. These results indicate that maternal nicotine exposure during the lactation period induces oxidative stress in the liver and lung of lactating offspring, which is maintained until the puberty, especially for the male rats.

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