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Victoria de Durango, Mexico

Alvarado-Esquivel C.,Mexico State University | Garcia-Machado C.,Mexico State University | Alvarado-Esquivel D.,Mexico State University | Vitela-Corrales J.,Laboratory of Animal Pathology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2012

The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 511 sheep from 8 farms in Durango State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Sheep were raised in 3 geographical regions, i.e., mountainous (n = 68), semi-desert (n = 132), and valley (n = 311). Overall, T. gondii antibodies were found in 77 (15.1%) of 511 sheep, with MAT titers of 1:25 in 27, 1:50 in 10, 1:100 in 11, 1:200 in 11, 1:400 in 8, 1:800 in 3, 1:1,600 in 4, and 1:3,200 in 3. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection increased significantly with age, indicating post-natal transmission. In contrast, gender, breed, flock size, and geographic region did not significantly influence the seroprevalence. Seropositive sheep were found in 7 of 8 farms sampled. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Durango State, Mexico. Results indicate that infected sheep are probably an important source of T. gondii infection for humans in Durango State. © 2012 American Society of Parasitologists. Source


Bregano L.C.,Laboratory of Virology | Agostinho S.D.,Laboratory of Virology | Roncatti F.L.B.T.,Laboratory of Virology | Pires M.C.,Laboratory of Virology | And 4 more authors.
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica | Year: 2011

In most viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS), the integrity of brain extracelluar matrix (ECM), oxidative stress and dysfunction in neuronal transmission may contribute to the observed pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of these factors in demyelinating canine distemper virus (CDV) infections. Regardless of ECM integrity, the expression of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was visualized in microglial-like cells, whereas the expression of anti-oxidant like-1 (AOP-1) and synaptosomal associated protein (SNAP-25) was frequently detected in Purkinje cells (r2 = 0.989; p < 0.05), regardless of whether the lesions were classified as acute or chronic. Increased numbers of immunolabeled microglia-like cells and reactive gliosis were observed in advanced cases of demyelinating CDV, suggesting that the expression of AOP-1 and SNAP-25 is correlated with the ultimate death of affected cells. Our findings bring a new perspective to understanding the role of the AOP-1, MMP-9 and SNAP-25 proteins in mediating chronic leukoencephalitis caused by CDV. © Polish Society for Histochemistry and Cytochemistry Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2011. Source


Alvarado-Esquivel C.,Mexico State University | Garcia-Machado C.,Mexico State University | Garcia-Machado C.,Laboratory of Animal Pathology | Alvarado-Esquivel D.,Mexico State University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Mexico. Accordingly, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 1,074 domestic pigs in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Two groups (A, B) of pigs were sampled: Group A pigs (n = 555) were raised in 3 geographical regions in Durango State and Group B pigs (n = 519) were from Sonora State but slaughtered in Durango City. Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 136 (12.7%) of 1,074 pigs with titers of 1:25 in 29, 1:50 in 23, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 22, 1:400 in 12, 1:800 in 8, 1:1,600 in 2, and 1:3,200 or higher in 22. Of the pigs raised in Durango State, seroprevalence varied with age, management, and the geographic region; pigs raised in backyards in the mountainous region had a significantly higher seroprevalence (32.1%) than those raised in the valley (13.0%) and the semi-desert regions (14.0%). In Group A pigs from Durango, seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in pigs older than 8 mo (19.5%) than in younger pigs (10.9%). In the whole pig population (Groups A and B together), seroprevalence was higher in pigs raised in Durango (16.0%) than in those raised in Sonora (9.1%) and higher in mixed-breed pigs (15.7%) than in pure-bred pigs (10.3%). This is the first, in-depth study on the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection of pigs in Mexico and the first report on pigs from Durango State, Mexico. Results indicate that infected pork is likely an important source of T. gondii infection for humans in Durango State. © 2011 American Society of Parasitologists. Source


Alvarado-Esquivel C.,Mexico State University | Gonzalez-Salazar A.M.,Laboratory of Animal Pathology | Alvarado-Esquivel D.,Mexico State University | Ontiveros-Vazquez F.,Laboratory of Animal Pathology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2012

Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 519 chickens in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of chickens were sampled. Group A chickens (n = 51) were raised in backyards in 7 municipalities in 3 geographical regions in Durango State. Group B chickens were raised in farms in the Mexican States of Sinaloa (n = 289) and Nayarit (n = 179) but slaughtered in 2 abattoirs in Durango City. Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 36 (6.9%) of 519 chickens, with MAT titers of 1:25 in 22, 1:50 in 8, 1:100 in 2, 1:200 in 3, and 1:400 in 1. Seroprevalence of T. gondii increased significantly with age and was significantly higher in Group A chickens than in Group B chickens. In Group A chickens, a 25.5% seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found. Seropositive chickens were found in all 7 municipalities sampled. In Group B chickens, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 4.9%. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico. © 2012 American Society of Parasitologists. Source

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