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Chalghmi H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Chalghmi H.,Laboratory of Analysis Treatment and Valorization of Environmental Pollutants and Products | Gourves P.-Y.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bourdineaud J.-P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Saidane-Mosbahi D.,Laboratory of Analysis Treatment and Valorization of Environmental Pollutants and Products
Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2016

The spatial and seasonal alteration in a battery of biomarkers responses (enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and acetylcholinesterase and lipid peroxidation) were investigated to assess the metal derived effects in clam (Ruditapes decussatus) gills, collected from Tunis lagoon (Tunisia). Trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) concentrations were assessed seasonally in sediments and tissues of R. decussatus from three different sites (S1, S2 and S3). Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) analysis showed a spatio-temporal variation of metal uptake rates in clams through sediments. Likewise, the multibiomarker approach enabled a time-site trend differentiation between sites with distinctive degrees of anthropogenic contamination. Site S2 was identified as the most impacted region due to the presence of different contamination sources (shipping and industrial activities). The results suggest that biomarker's seasonal variation arises from a complex interaction between environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, salinity) and probably biological factors (mainly the reproduction process) along with anthropogenic pressure. The general biological response measured with the IBR index at all the sampling sites revealed the highest metabolic stress in summer. The combined effects of metal contamination and increased temperature and salinity in summer appear to induce the highest metabolic adaptation response. The selected biomarkers provided an integrated response, which is useful for the assessment of the combined effects of metal contamination and abiotic parameters in clams and the environmental status of coastal lagoon ecosystem. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Chalghmi H.,Laboratory of Analysis Treatment and Valorization of Environmental Pollutants and Products | Chalghmi H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bourdineaud J.-P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Haouas Z.,University of Sfax | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2016

This study was designed to investigate the molecular (transcriptional expression), biochemical (oxidative stress and neurotoxicity), and histopathological effects of metal contamination in the gill of clams (Ruditapes decussatus) sampled from the Tunis lagoon. The concentrations of five heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, and Zn) in surface sediments and their accumulation in soft tissues of R. decussatus were evaluated in three sites (Z1, Z2, and Z3). A metal contamination state of Tunis lagoon sediments was noted with spatial variations with relatively high levels at Z2. Biomarker analyses showed an increase in glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities and lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity in the studied sites. Molecular investigation showed a significant overexpression of: cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, ribosomal RNA 16S, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, heat shock protein 70, and metallothioneins in the three sampling sites. Moreover, our data were correlated to severe and diverse histopathological alterations in the clam gills. The principal component analysis showed that the Z2 region is more affected by metal contamination than Z1 and Z3 regions. Current field results suggest the use of several combined biomarkers at different cell levels instead of individual ones in monitoring programs. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Campo L.,University of Milan | Hanchi M.,Laboratory of Analysis Treatment and Valorization of Environmental Pollutants and Products | Olgiati L.,University of Milan | Polledri E.,University of Milan | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2016

Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding have been classified as carcinogenic to humans, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this industrial setting may contribute to cancer risk. The occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed in 93 male workers at an electric steel foundry in Tunisia by biomonitoring, with the aims of characterizing the excretion profile and investigating the influence of job title and personal characteristics on the biomarkers. Sixteen 2-6 ring unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) and eight hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OHPAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Among U-PAHs, urinary naphthalene (U-NAP) was the most abundant compound (median level: 643ng l-1), followed by phenanthrene (U-PHE, 18.5ng l-1). Urinary benzo[a]pyrene (U-BaP) level was <0.30ng l-1. Among OHPAHs, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNAP) was the most abundant metabolite (2.27 μg l-1). Median 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPYR) was 0.52 μg l-1. Significant correlations among urinary biomarkers were observed, with Pearson's r ranging from 0.177 to 0.626. 1-OHPYR was correlated to benzo[a]pyrene, but not to five- and six-rings PAHs. A multiple linear regression model showed that job title was a significant determinant for almost all U-PAHs. In particular, employees in the steel smelter workshop had higher levels of high-boiling U-PAHs and lower levels of low-boiling U-PAHs than those of workers with other job titles. Among OHPAHs, this model was significant only for naphthols and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPHE). Smoking status was a significant predictor for almost all biomarkers. Among all analytes, U-PHE and 1-OHPHE were the less affected by tobacco smoke, and they were significantly correlated with both low- and high-molecular-weight compounds, and their levels were related to job titles, so they could be proposed as suitable biomarkers of PAH exposure at steel foundries. Based on 1-OHPYR levels, our findings show that occupational exposure of these workers was similar to that reported in recent studies of electric steel foundry workers. The multianalytic approach is useful in revealing different exposure levels among job titles. © 2016 The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

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