Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology

Ourense, Spain

Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology

Ourense, Spain

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Rodriguez-Solana R.,University of Vigo | Rodriguez-Solana R.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | Salgado J.M.,University of Minho | Dominguez J.M.,University of Vigo | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014

Oleoresin extraction from fennel seeds using a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was carried out. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to optimize the SFE variables: pressure (10, 17.5, and 25. MPa), temperature (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15. K) and time of extraction (1, 2.5, and 4. h). Different percentages of methanol (0, 3, and 6%) were also evaluated to improve the extraction of the corresponding volatile compounds. Besides volatile profile characterization of fennel seeds, the amount of estragole was determined (by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID)) due to its recent concern in being considered a potential carcinogen agent. The optimal values of SFE variables for methanol extracts were high levels of pressure (24. MPa), 333.15. K of temperature, 3.41. h of extraction time, and an intermediate value of methanol percentage (3%), obtaining an optimal value of 1320. ±. 260. mg of estragole/kg dry plant. The volatile profile of the methanol extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) obtaining mainly, terpenes, phenyl derivatives, and fatty acids. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Salgado J.M.,University of Vigo | Salgado J.M.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | Rodriguez N.,University of Vigo | Rodriguez N.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2010

Background: Vinasses, the main liquid wastes from the distillation process of grape marc and wine lees, are acidic effluents with high organic content, including acids, carbohydrates, phenols, and unsaturated compounds with high chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and solid concentrations. These wastes can be revalued to provide additional benefits when they are employed as feedstock of some compounds including tartaric acid, calcium tartrate and economic nutrients for the elaboration of fermentable broths. Result: This study attempts to recover tartaric acid and calcium tartrate from vinasses. All the tartaric acid initially solubilised was recovered in both processes. The residual streams can be successfully employed as economic nutrients for the xylose to xylitol bioconversion, achieving higher global volumetric productivities (QP,xylitol = 0.232 g L-1 h-1) and products yields (Yxylitol/S = 0.57 g g-1) than fermentations carried out using commercial nutrients (QP,xylitol = 0.193 g L-1 h-1 and Yxylitol/S = 0.55 g g-1 respectively). Conclusion: Tartaric acid can be recovered from vinasses in the form of tartaric acid crystals and calcium tartrate. The residual streams generated in the process can be used as economic nutrients for the production of xylitol by D. hansenii. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.


Salgado J.M.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | Salgado J.M.,University of Vigo | Rodriguez-Solana R.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | Rodriguez-Solana R.,University of Vigo | And 5 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

The enzyme PAD from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T decarboxylates some cinnamic acids namely p-coumaric acid (p-CA), caffeic acid (CA), and ferulic acid (FA) into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives (4-VD): 4-vinyl phenol (4-VP), 4-vinyl catechol (4-VC), and 4-vinyl guaiacol (4-VG), respectively, which are valuable food additives mainly employed as flavouring agents. The gene encoding this enzyme was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant E. coli cells overproducing L. plantarum PAD showed a preference to degrade mainly p-CA and CA. Sterilized liquors obtained after alkaline hydrolysis of corn cob or alkaline hydrolysis of the solid residue coming from acid hydrolysis of corn cob were employed as growth media in fermentations performed in shaker or bioreactor. The fermentative process allowed converting 2222.8mg/L p-CA into 993.9mg/L 4-VP. The process described here allowed the production with a high-yield of a valuable food additive from a by-product of the food industry. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Rodriguez-Solana R.,University of Vigo | Rodriguez-Solana R.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | Salgado J.M.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering | Dominguez J.M.,University of Vigo | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) is an aromatic plant used, among other applications, in the production of traditional herbal liqueurs. In this study, essential oils from fennel were extracted applying two techniques, Soxhlet and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracts obtained were characterized by GC-MS. Taking into account that estragole is the major constituent of fennel and due to recent studies pointed out its possible carcinogenic properties; this compound was also quantified by GC-FID. The quantification method showed good linearity (r2=0.998) and precision (RSD<5%) with low values of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits. A Box-Behnken design was used to correlate three independent variables (temperature, contact time sample-solvent and number of cycles) with the amount of estragole extracted. Meanwhile, the response surface methodology was applied to optimize the extraction of estragole by ASE. The optimal conditions were 125°C, 7min and 3 cycles. On the other hand, the Soxhlet technique was studied step-by-step. Two variables were optimized: time (4 and 8h) and solvents, according to their polarity. Methanol and 4h of extraction showed the best results both qualitatively and quantitatively. The Soxhlet technique provided higher performance of extraction and greater amounts of compounds extracted compared to ASE, but similar concentration of estragole. The shorter time of extraction and the lower amount of solvent used justify the ASE technique choice to characterize fennel essential oils. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Rodriguez-Solana R.,University of Vigo | Rodriguez-Solana R.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | Rodriguez-Solana R.,Agricultural University of Athens | Daferera D.J.,Agricultural University of Athens | And 4 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014

Three different techniques: the classical gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and two "green" alternative techniques to the classical chromatography, the spectroscopic techniques Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and dispersive-Raman were employed to characterize the main chemotypes of different essential oils from plants of the Lamiaceae family and to compare between techniques. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was also employed to quantify the main compounds present in essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and semi-quantify essential oil composition isolated by HD and simultaneous steam distillation - solvent extraction (SDE). While GC cannot differentiate between pure and mixed chemotypes of a compound, FT-IR, and Raman methods allow the creation of libraries, through which chemotype determination is feasible even for mixed chemotypes, thus combining robustness with being rapid and non-destructive techniques. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Cortes S.,University of Vigo | Cortes S.,Laboratory of Agro Food Biotechnology | Salgado J.M.,University of Vigo | Salgado J.M.,Laboratory of Agro Food Biotechnology | And 4 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2010

Grape marc, the mass of skins, stalks and seeds left after the winemaking process, is stored before distillation to produce ethanol by the alcoholic fermentation of the residual sugars. In this work 24 samples of grape marc were stored in four different types of containers. After distillation process, the samples obtained were analyzed by GC-MS to evaluate the influence that the storage exercises on the major volatile composition. Grape marc stored in plastic sacks (1000. kg) produced distillates with low values of the majority volatile compounds, that implies a good quality but a poor aromaticity. Distillates from pomace in plastic drums (250. kg) showed a high content in ethyl esters and higher alcohols, however the concentrations of ethyl acetate and aldehydes and acetal are high too, due to the difficulty to control the aerobic bacteria spoilage. The principal problem of the concrete containers (70,000. kg) is the high methanol production and in the plastic sacks (50. kg) the quick aerobic and anaerobic degradation. With an exhaustive control of oxygen contact, plastic drums and plastic sacks (1000. kg) were the better systems to storage grape marc before distillation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Rodriguez-Solana R.,University of Vigo | Rodriguez-Solana R.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | Salgado J.M.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering | Dominguez J.M.,University of Vigo | And 3 more authors.
Phytochemical Analysis | Year: 2015

Introduction - Plants from the Lamiaceae family have been known traditionally for their beneficial health-promoting properties, attributed to their anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and anti-microbial effects.Objective - The purposes of this study was to characterise the essential oils from four Lamiaceae plants by applying different extraction techniques.Methods - Accelerated solvent (ASE), Soxhlet and supercritical fluid (SFE) extraction methods were compared for their efficiency in obtaining the essential oils from plants. The volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS and the main chemotype was quantified by GC with flame ionisation detection (FID). Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC and electrospray ionisation (ESI) with MS/MS.Results - The essential oils Mentha piperita (ct. menthol/menthone), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ct. eucalyptol/camphor) and Origanum vulgare (ct. carvacrol/thymol), whereas Thymus vulgaris L. was found to be a pure chemotype (ct. thymol). All three extracts also contained six phenolic compounds. The highest extraction yields were achieved by the Soxhlet and ASE techniques, with M. piperita and R. officinalis L. producing the highest concentrations of rosmarinic and carnosic acids. Finally, it was observed that M. piperita and O. vulgare produced the highest total phenolic content, whereas R. officinalis L. and T. vulgaris L. produced the highest anti-oxidant activity.Conclusion - The ASE and Soxhlet extraction techniques presented the highest yields of volatile and phenolic compounds, showing their suitability to characterise the chemical profile of aromatic plants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Rodriguez-Solana R.,University of Vigo | Rodriguez-Solana R.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | Salgado J.M.,University of Vigo | Salgado J.M.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | And 4 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013

Orujo is the name of the Galician (NW of Spain) grape marc distillate. The usual way of Orujo consumption is as young brandy due to the lack of knowledge about the most appropriate type of barrel for aging and the high cost of the final product. However in the past years, demand for this aged distillate has increased. This manuscript has a double aim: contribute to the analytical characterization of this traditional beverage in terms of mineral constituents and evaluate the influence of the species of wooden barrel in the mineral content. Analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ca and Mg), flame atomic emission spectrophotometry (Na and K) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Al, Cd and Pb). Orujos aged in Quercus alba showed significant higher value for the majority of metals whereas those aged in Quercus petraea showed the lowest contents. K, Na and Ca were the more abundant minerals in the analyzed distillates. The PCA analysis clearly showed a good separation of samples in terms of mineral constituents. The very low concentrations of all minerals evaluated indicated the good manufactured process and the consumer safety of aged Orujos. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Salgado J.M.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering | Rodriguez-Solana R.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | Rodriguez-Solana R.,University of Vigo | Curiel J.A.,Laboratorio Y Tecnologia Of Alimentos Y Nutricion | And 7 more authors.
Enzyme and Microbial Technology | Year: 2014

In situ extractive fermentation was used to produce 4-vinyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids extracted from corn cobs by recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing Lactobacillus plantarum phenolic acid descarboxylase (PAD) gene. This microorganism mainly produced 4-vinylphenol (4VP) from p-coumaric acid (p-CA). In the first study , we observed that the concentrations of 4VP are higher than 1g/L which had a negative impact on decarboxylation of p-CA to 4VP by recombinant E. coli cells. Because of this, and in order to improve the downstream process, a two-phase aqueous-organic solvent system was developed. The results of the extractive fermentation indicated that it was possible to use hydrolyzates as aqueous phase to bioproduce 4VP, and recover simultaneously the product in the organic phase containing hexane. The detoxification of pre-treated corn cob alkaline hydrolyzate improved 4VP production up to 1003.5mg/L after 24h fermentation (QP=41.813mg/Lh). Additionally, preliminary experiments using cells immobilized in calcium alginate showed to be a good system for the biotransform of p-CA to 4VP in extractive fermentation, although the process hindered partially the recovery of 4VP in the organic phase. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Rodriguez N.,University of Vigo | Rodriguez N.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | Salgado J.M.,University of Vigo | Salgado J.M.,Laboratory of Agro food Biotechnology | And 4 more authors.
Letters in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: Study of the potential of Lactococcus lactis CECT-4434 as a biosurfactants and nisin (the only bacteriocin allowed to be used in the food industry) producer for industrial applications, exploiting the possibility of recovering separately both metabolites, taking into account that L. lactis is an interesting micro-organism with several applications in the food industry because it is recognized as GRAS. Methods and Results: The results showed the ability of this strain to produce cell-bound biosurfactants, under controlled pH, and cell-bound biosurfactants and bacteriocins, when pH was not controlled. Three extraction procedures were designed to separately recover these substances. Conclusions: The strain L. lactis CECT-4434 showed to be a cell-bound biosurfactants and bacterocins producer when fermentations were carried out under uncontrolled pH. Both products can be recovered separately. Significance and Impact of the Study: Development of a convenient tool for the extraction of cell-bound biosurfactants and bacteriocins from the fermentation broth. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

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