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Wong Y.M.,Laboratory of Advanced Catalysis and Environmental Technology | Wu T.Y.,University of Selangor | Juan J.C.,Laboratory of Advanced Catalysis and Environmental Technology | Juan J.C.,University of Malaya
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

In recent years, the production of hydrogen (H2) via dark fermentation has become increasingly popular because it is a sustainable approach to produce clean energy. This review presents an overview with a critical analysis of the technical challenges in obtaining high H2 yield through dark fermentation. Particular focus is given to the pretreatment methods that affect H2 production. We observed that heat pretreatment is the most frequently applied and the most effective method of eliminating H2-consuming bacteria (HCB) while preserving H2-producing bacteria (HPB). The pre-dominant HPB species after pretreatment belongs to the genus Clostridium and hence the fermentation conditions are optimized according to their preference for H2 production. Besides, we also reviewed fermentation conditions such as substrate, pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), types of nutrient and inhibitor substrate, to obtain clearer insight on the influences of critical parameters in H2 production. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Tan C.H.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Cheah W.Y.,University of Malaya | Ling T.C.,University of Malaya | Show P.L.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2015

Global concern for energy security and environmental sustainability has put a great prominence towards alternative energy resources, substituting the rapidly-depleting fossil fuels. Fossil fuels have been a major contributing factor for greenhouse gas production, leading to global warming. Hence, biofuels have been greatly researched in hopes to replace fossil fuels. One remarkable biofuel producer is microalgae, due to their high biomass productions, high cellular lipid accumulation, as well as the ability to sequester carbon dioxide from waste gas and remove pollutants from wastewater. Integration of wastewater as the medium for algal cultivation offers a green and cost-effective way for sustainable biofuel production. The zero-cost palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Malaysia will be an option for microalgae cultivation due to the high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. Microalgae are able to survive in wastewater by utilizing the nutrients for growth. This has the potential to achieve economical microalgae production for bioenergy, while promoting environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2015, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.,.

Cheah W.Y.,University of Malaya | Show P.L.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Chang J.-S.,National Cheng Kung University | Ling T.C.,University of Malaya | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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