Rumio C.,University of Milan |
Sommariva M.,University of Milan |
Sommariva M.,Molecular Targeting Unit |
Sfondrini L.,University of Milan |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2012
The secretory activity of Paneth cells is related to the bacterial milieu in the small intestine; however, the molecules involved in inducing Paneth cell secretion of enzymes and antimicrobial peptides are not well-defined. Mice treated orally with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), an agonist of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9, showed rapid and massive Paneth cell degranulation. CpG-ODN-induced degranulation was not observed in TLR9 -/- mice or in chimeric TLR9 -/- mice reconstituted with wild-type (WT) bone marrow, but was observed in WT mice reconstituted with TLR9 -/- bone marrow, indicating a role for TLR9-expressing gastrointestinal cells in CpG recognition. The TLR3 agonist polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid also induced rapid degranulation, whereas the TLR4 and TLR5 agonists LPS and flagellin, respectively, induced late degranulation mediated by TNF-α. Our evidence that TLR9 and TLR3 agonists induce Paneth cell degranulation points to the need for further studies of the mechanisms underlying Paneth cell function as an avenue toward preventing infection and treating inflammatory bowel diseases. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mirabile A.,Head and Neck Cancer Medical Oncology Unit |
Vismara C.,Medicine Laboratory Unit |
Crippa F.,Unit of Infectious |
Bossi P.,Head and Neck Cancer Medical Oncology Unit |
And 8 more authors.
Head and Neck | Year: 2016
Background The incidence of health care-associated infections in patients with head and neck cancer receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (RT) is unknown. This retrospective study investigated the most common pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity/resistance patterns in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods Infection rates in patients with head and neck cancer were analyzed over 2 periods (January 2005 to December 2009 and January 2010 to November 2012). Results In the first period, 140 health care-associated infections were observed among 2288 admissions, mostly because of gram-negative pathogens affecting the respiratory tract. In the second period, 212 health care-associated infections were observed. An increase in antibiotic resistance was reported. Health care-associated infections were more frequent with: male sex, age <65 years, important comorbidities, smoking, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), prophylaxis, and/or central venous catheter (CVC), locally advanced disease, and chemotherapy/RT, especially after the third week of treatment. Conclusion Health care-associated infections increased over time, with corresponding increases in gram-negative pathogens and resistant strains. Prevention and treatment protocols should be implemented in institutions treating patients with head and neck cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..