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Thiessen S.E.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine | Van den Berghe G.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine | Vanhorebeek I.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2017

Patients with critical illness-induced multiple organ failure suffer from a very high morbidity and mortality, despite major progress in intensive care. The pathogenesis of this condition is complex and incompletely understood. Inadequate tissue perfusion and an overwhelming inflammatory response with pronounced cellular damage have been suggested to play an important role, but interventions targeting these disturbances largely failed to improve patient outcome. Hence, new therapeutic perspectives are urgently needed. Cellular dysfunction, hallmarked by mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress, is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the development of organ failure in critical illness. Several cellular defense mechanisms are normally activated when the cell is in distress, but may fail or respond insufficiently to critical illness. This insight may open new therapeutic options by stimulating these cellular defense mechanisms. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in critical illness-induced multiple organ failure and gives an overview of the corresponding cellular defense mechanisms. Therapeutic perspectives based on these cellular defense mechanisms are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Immune and Metabolic Alterations in Trauma and Sepsis - edited by Raghavan Raju. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Ingels C.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine | Vanhorebeek I.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine | Derese I.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine | Jensen L.,University of Aarhus | And 3 more authors.
Pediatric Research | Year: 2016

Background: Critically ill children are prone to nosocomial infections, which may lead to adverse outcome. Low serum concentrations upon admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP)-3 protein of the lectin pathway of complement activation have been associated with risk of infection and prolonged need for intensive care. We hypothesized that also a low upon-admission concentration of collectin-L1 (CL-L1), a novel member of this pathway, is independently associated with these adverse outcomes. Methods: We quantified the serum concentrations of CL-L1 in 81 healthy children and in 700 critically ill children upon PICU admission. Results: CL-L1 concentrations were significantly lower in the critically ill children as compared with the healthy children. However, corrected for baseline characteristics, risk factors and several lectin pathway proteins, a higher CL-L1 concentration upon PICU admission was independently associated with an increased risk of acquiring a new infection and with a prolonged time to PICU discharge. In contrast, a low MASP-3 concentration remained independently associated with these adverse outcomes. Conclusion: A high serum CL-L1 concentration in critically ill children upon PICU admission is associated with an increased risk of infection and prolonged need of intensive care, and counteracts the protective effect of having a high MASP-3 concentration. © 2016 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc.


PubMed | University of Aarhus and Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatric research | Year: 2016

Critically ill children are prone to nosocomial infections, which may lead to adverse outcome. Low serum concentrations upon admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP)-3 protein of the lectin pathway of complement activation have been associated with risk of infection and prolonged need for intensive care. We hypothesized that also a low upon-admission concentration of collectin-L1 (CL-L1), a novel member of this pathway, is independently associated with these adverse outcomes.We quantified the serum concentrations of CL-L1 in 81 healthy children and in 700 critically ill children upon PICU admission.CL-L1 concentrations were significantly lower in the critically ill children as compared with the healthy children. However, corrected for baseline characteristics, risk factors and several lectin pathway proteins, a higher CL-L1 concentration upon PICU admission was independently associated with an increased risk of acquiring a new infection and with a prolonged time to PICU discharge. In contrast, a low MASP-3 concentration remained independently associated with these adverse outcomes.A high serum CL-L1 concentration in critically ill children upon PICU admission is associated with an increased risk of infection and prolonged need of intensive care, and counteracts the protective effect of having a high MASP-3 concentration.


Sterken C.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine | Lemiere J.,University Psychiatric Center | Lemiere J.,University Hospitals Leuven | Van Den Berghe G.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine | Mesotten D.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine
Pediatrics | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVES: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) often have neurocognitive deficits, sometimes with a detrimental impact on daily and school functioning. These deficits may increase through childhood. In this study, we investigated whether children with CHD, who underwent heart surgery as infants, show more neurocognitive deficits, especially in the executive functions, as they get older, compared with healthy controls. METHODS: In this longitudinal follow-up study, 107 children with CHD and 77 healthy control children underwent extensive neurocognitive testing at 4 years of age. Ninety-three percent of the children (100 patients with CHDs and 72 controls) underwent a second neurocognitive testing 3 years later. Intelligence, visual-motor integration (VMI), alertness, motor coordination, executive functions, and psychosocial functioning were assessed. RESULTS: IQ scores were consistently lower in the CHD group (P < .001); however, the difference of 11.7 IQ points between both groups at follow-up 1 decreased to 7 IQ points at follow-up 2 (P = .003). Inhibition reaction time had improved in both study groups at follow-up 2 (P < .001) and did not differ between both groups from follow-up 1 to follow-up 2 (P = .849). Deficits in VMI, alertness, motor coordination, and psychosocial functioning also did not worsen for patients with CHDs at follow-up 2, compared with healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Children with CHD, who underwent heart surgery as infants, do not show an increase of neurocognitive deficits between the ages of 4 and 7 years, compared with healthy controls. Patients with CHDs keep deficits in intelligence, VMI, and psychosocial functioning, but seem to partially grow out of their deficits. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


PubMed | University Psychiatric Center and Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatrics | Year: 2016

Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) often have neurocognitive deficits, sometimes with a detrimental impact on daily and school functioning. These deficits may increase through childhood. In this study, we investigated whether children with CHD, who underwent heart surgery as infants, show more neurocognitive deficits, especially in the executive functions, as they get older, compared with healthy controls.In this longitudinal follow-up study, 107 children with CHD and 77 healthy control children underwent extensive neurocognitive testing at 4 years of age. Ninety-three percent of the children (100 patients with CHDs and 72 controls) underwent a second neurocognitive testing 3 years later. Intelligence, visual-motor integration (VMI), alertness, motor coordination, executive functions, and psychosocial functioning were assessed.IQ scores were consistently lower in the CHD group (P < .001); however, the difference of 11.7 IQ points between both groups at follow-up 1 decreased to 7 IQ points at follow-up 2 (P = .003). Inhibition reaction time had improved in both study groups at follow-up 2 (P < .001) and did not differ between both groups from follow-up 1 to follow-up 2 (P = .849). Deficits in VMI, alertness, motor coordination, and psychosocial functioning also did not worsen for patients with CHDs at follow-up 2, compared with healthy controls.Children with CHD, who underwent heart surgery as infants, do not show an increase of neurocognitive deficits between the ages of 4 and 7 years, compared with healthy controls. Patients with CHDs keep deficits in intelligence, VMI, and psychosocial functioning, but seem to partially grow out of their deficits.


Boonen E.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine | Langouche L.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine | Janssens T.,Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine | Meersseman P.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Context: Adrenal insufficiency is considered to be prevalent during critical illness, although the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and optimal therapeutic strategy remain controversial. During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown contributes substantially to elevated plasma cortisol and low plasma ACTH concentrations.Objective: Because ACTH has a trophic impact on the adrenal cortex, we hypothesized that with a longer duration of critical illness, subnormal ACTH adrenocortical stimulation predisposes to adrenal insufficiency.Design, Setting and Participants: Adrenal glands were harvested 24 hours or sooner after death from 13 long intensive care unit (ICU)-stay patients, 27 short ICU-stay patients, and13 controls. Prior glucocorticoid treatment was excluded.Main Outcome and Measure(s): Microscopic adrenocortical zonational structure was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The amount of adrenal cholesterol esters was determined by Oil-Red-O staining, and mRNA expression of ACTH-regulated steroidogenic enzymes was quantified.Conclusion and Relevance: Lipid depletion and reduced ACTH-regulated gene expression in prolonged critical illness suggest that sustained lack of ACTH may contribute to the risk of adrenal insufficiency in long-stay ICU patients.Results: The adrenocortical zonational structure was disturbed in patients as compared with controls (P<.0001), with indistinguishable adrenocortical zones present only in long ICU-stay patients (P= .003 vs. controls). Adrenal glands from long ICU-stay patients, but not those of short ICU-stay patients, contained21%less protein (P=.03) and9%more fluid (P=.01) than those from controls, whereas they tended to weigh less for comparable adrenal surface area. There was 78% less Oil-Red-O staining in long ICU-stay patients than in controls and in short-stay patients (P=.03), the latter similar to controls (P= .31). The mRNA expression of melanocortin 2 receptor, scavengerreceptor class B, member 1, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme was at least 58% lower in long ICU-stay patients than in controls (all P= .03) and of melanocortin 2 receptor, scavenger-receptor class B, member 1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme at least 53% lower than in short ICU-stay patients (all P= .04), whereas gene expression in short ICU-stay patients was similar to controls. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.


PubMed | Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism | Year: 2014

Recently, during critical illness, cortisol metabolism was found to be reduced. We hypothesize that such reduced cortisol breakdown may suppress pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion via feedback inhibition. To test this hypothesis, nocturnal ACTH and cortisol secretory profiles were constructed by deconvolution analysis from plasma concentration time series in 40 matched critically ill patients and eight healthy controls, excluding diseases or drugs that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Blood was sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 to quantify plasma concentrations of ACTH and (free) cortisol. Approximate entropy, an estimation of process irregularity, cross-approximate entropy, a measure of ACTH-cortisol asynchrony, and ACTH-cortisol dose-response relationships were calculated. Total and free plasma cortisol concentrations were higher at all times in patients than in controls (all P < 0.04). Pulsatile cortisol secretion was 54% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.005), explained by reduced cortisol burst mass (P = 0.03), whereas cortisol pulse frequency (P = 0.35) and nonpulsatile cortisol secretion (P = 0.80) were unaltered. Pulsatile ACTH secretion was 31% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.03), again explained by a lower ACTH burst mass (P = 0.02), whereas ACTH pulse frequency (P = 0.50) and nonpulsatile ACTH secretion (P = 0.80) were unchanged. ACTH-cortisol dose response estimates were similar in patients and controls. ACTH and cortisol approximate entropy were higher in patients (P 0.03), as was ACTH-cortisol cross-approximate entropy (P 0.001). We conclude that hypercortisolism during critical illness coincided with suppressed pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion and a normal ACTH-cortisol dose response. Increased irregularity and asynchrony of the ACTH and cortisol time series supported non-ACTH-dependent mechanisms driving hypercortisolism during critical illness.

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