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Umm al Qaywayn, United Arab Emirates

Laverty S.,University of Montreal | Girard C.A.,University of Montreal | Williams J.M.,Rush University Medical Center | Hunziker E.B.,University of Bern | Pritzker K.P.H.,Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage

Aim: The primary goal of this body of work is to suggest a standardized system for histopathological assessment of experimental surgical instability models of osteoarthritis (OA) in rabbits, building on past experience, to achieve comparability of studies from different centres. An additional objective is to review methodologies that have been employed in the past for assessing OA in rabbits with particular reference to the surgical anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model. Methods: A panel of scientists and clinician-scientists with recognized expertise in assessing rabbit models of OA reviewed the literature to provide a critical appraisal of the methods that have been employed to assess both macroscopic and microscopic changes occurring in rabbit joint tissues in experimental OA. In addition, a validation of the proposed histologic histochemical grading system was performed. Results: The ACLT variant of the surgical instability model in skeletally mature rabbits is the variation most capable of reproducing the entire range of cartilage, synovial and bone lesions recognized to be associated with OA. These lesions can be semiquantitatively graded using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. Further, as well as cartilage lesions, this ACLT model can produce synovial and bone lesions similar to that of human OA. Conclusions: The ACLT variant of the surgical instability model in rabbits is a reproducible and effective model of OA. The cartilage lesions in this model and their response to therapy can be graded according to an adapted histological and histochemical grading system, though also this system is to some extent subjective and, thus, neither objective nor entirely reproducible. © 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Source

Huang J.,Healthy Heart Program | Frohlich J.,Healthy Heart Program | Frohlich J.,Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Ignaszewski A.P.,Healthy Heart Program
Canadian Journal of Cardiology

With a growing number of dietary interventions that claim to improve lipid profile, it is important to ensure that these claims are evidence based. The objective of this study was to make recommendations for dietary regimens by analyzing their effectiveness and the level of evidence. We searched MEDLINE as well as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for nutritional studies. Meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials published in English and including data on the effect on blood lipid levels were used. Randomized controlled trials were included if they were at least 4 weeks in duration and had a minimum of 50 participants. We identified 22 different dietary interventions and reviewed 136 studies published between January 1990 and December 2009 that met our inclusion criteria. Our literature review showed that to improve lipid profile, the following regimens can be recommended fully: Mediterranean and Portfolio diets; low-fat diet; diet high in soy protein, fibre, or phytosterols; whole grain foods, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The consumption of nuts, a diet high in carbohydrates and protein, green tea, and red wine, as well as the supplementation with policosanol and red yeast rice extract, can be considered for improvement of the lipid profile, while the supplements of guggulipid, garlic, chromium, vitamin C, magnesium-pyridoxal-phosphate-glutamate, tocotrienols, and absorbitol cannot be recommended. © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Source

Moore G.R.W.,University of British Columbia | Moore G.R.W.,Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Moore G.R.W.,Blusson Spinal Cord Center | Laule C.,University of British Columbia
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology

The advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized concepts of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Magnetic resonance imaging provides the ability to delineate the evolution of the disease process over time; captured static snapshots can then be used in pathologic correlations studies. Certain patterns in the 2-or 3-dimensional MRI sphere correlate very well with similarpatterns of histopathology. A multimodality approach that makes use of numerous MRI techniques can lead to significant insights into the nature of the changes in the CNS. MRI-pathology correlation studies in MS are being performed using newer MRI techniques as they become available. Such correlations and basic histopathologic studies have shown abnormalities in MS far beyond the well-documented changes in the plaque and have brought into question the dogma that MS is an initially inflammatory nondegenerative disease. This review briefly outlines technical considerations in MRI-pathology correlativestudies and describes the past and current status of our ability to correlate focal and diffuse changes on the MRI with neuropathologic findings in MS patients. Copyright © 2012 by the American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. Source

Haninger D.M.,University of Louisville | Kloecker G.H.,University of Louisville | Bousamra Ii M.,University of Louisville | Nowacki M.R.,Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Slone S.P.,University of Louisville
Modern Pathology

The current diagnostic criteria for hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung include typical acinar or papillary adenocarcinoma and a component resembling hepatocellular carcinoma and expressing α-fetoprotein (AFP). Distinguishing hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung from hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to lung is difficult in patients with both lung and liver masses and in patients at risk for lung and liver cancer because of smoking and viral hepatitis, respectively. We studied morphologic features of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung and established an immunohistochemical panel to facilitate distinction of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung from hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to lung. Five cases of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and mucicarmine for histomorphologic evaluation. The 14-marker immunohistochemical profile was established for hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung and compared with that of hepatocellular carcinoma. Two cases of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung had signet-ring cell components. Three cases were pure hepatoid adenocarcinoma without components of acinar or papillary adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cells or neuroendocrine carcinoma. Like hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung expresses CK8 (5/5), CK18 (5/5), AFP (3/5) and HepPar1 (5/5), shows cytoplasmic staining with TTF-1 (5/5) and does not express CK14 (0/5). Unlike hepatocellular carcinoma, it expresses CK5/6 (1/5), CK7 (3/5), CK19 (4/5), CK20 (1/5), HEA125 (5/5), MOC31 (5/5), monoclonal CEA (3/5) and napsin A (1/5). An immunohistochemical panel that includes a variety of cytokeratins, monoclonal CEA and EpCAM markers (HEA125 and MOC31) facilitates distinction of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung from hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to lung, especially when correlated with clinical and radiologic findings. We propose modification of the current diagnostic criteria for hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung. Tumor composition can be either pure hepatoid adenocarcinoma or hepatoid adenocarcinoma with components of typical acinar or papillary adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cells or neuroendocrine carcinoma. AFP expression is not requisite for diagnosis as long as other markers of hepatic differentiation are expressed. Source

Tsui F.W.L.,University of Toronto | Tsui H.W.,University of Toronto | Heras F.L.,University of Chile | Pritzker K.P.H.,Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Inman R.D.,University of Toronto
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Background: Unravelling the basis of joint inflammation and ankylosis represents a major challenge in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) research. As noggin (NOG) and sclerostin (SOST) have recently been associated with the disease process in mouse and human studies, respectively, we explored the immune responses to these two molecules in AS. Source

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