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Kim H.K.,Inje University | Youm J.B.,Inje University | Jeong S.H.,Inje University | Lee S.R.,Inje University | And 11 more authors.
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2015

Echinochrome A (Ech A), a marine bio-product isolated from sea urchin eggs, is known to have cardioprotective effects through its strong antioxidant and ATP-sparing capabilities. However, the effects of Ech A on cardiac excitation–contraction (E-C) are not known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ech A on cardiac contractility and Ca2+ handling in the rat heart. In ex vivo Langendorff hearts, Ech A (3 μM) decreased left ventricular developing pressure to 77.7 ± 6.5 % of basal level. In isolated ventricular myocytes, Ech A reduced the fractional cell shortening from 3.4 % at baseline to 2.1 %. Ech A increased both diastolic and peak systolic intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). However, the ratio of peak [Ca]i to resting [Ca]i was significantly decreased. Ech A did not affect the L-type Ca2+ current. Inhibiting the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger with either NiCl2 or SEA400 did not affect the Ech A-dependent changes in Ca2+ handling. Our data demonstrate that treatment with Ech A results in a significant reduction in the phosphorylation of phospholamban at both serine 16 and threonine 17 leading to a significant inhibition of SR Ca2+-ATPase 2A (SERCA2A) and subsequent reduced Ca2+ uptake into the intracellular Ca2+ store. Taken together, our data show that Ech A negatively regulates cardiac contractility by inhibiting SERCA2A activity, which leads to a reduction in internal Ca2+ stores. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Catholic University of Leuven, Universitetsparken 13 and Laboratory Ion Channel Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell calcium | Year: 2014

The importance of the TRPV4 channel for human physiology has been highlighted in recent years with the identification of an increasing number of hereditary diseases associated with mutations of this channel. However, the functional understanding of TRPV4 associated pathologies remains a puzzle due to incomplete understanding of the polymodal regulation of TRPV4 channels and lack of insight into the structure-function relationship of the channel. In this work, we identified a series of highly conserved aromatic residues in transmembrane (TM) helices 5-6 with profound importance for TRPV4 activity. Substituting F617, Y621 or F624 in TM5 with leucine reduced channel sensitivity to the agonist 4-PDD and heat, yet two of these mutants - F617L and Y621L - showed increased activation in response to cell swelling. In TM6, a Y702L mutation significantly reduced sensitivity to all of the above stimuli. In conclusion, we have identified residues in TM5-6 which differentially affect heat and agonist activation, and we have demonstrated distinct activation pathways for 4-PDD and osmolarity.


PubMed | Inje University and Laboratory Ion Channel Research
Type: | Journal: Reviews of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology | Year: 2016

The heart works without resting, requiring enormous amounts of energy to continuously pump blood throughout the body. Because of its considerable energy requirements, the heart is vulnerable to oxidative stress caused by the generation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the heart has effective regulatory and adaptive mechanisms to protect against oxidative stress. Inherited or acquired mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction disrupts energy metabolism and causes excessive ROS production and oxidative stress. The physiological cardiac response to oxidative stress can strengthen the heart, but pathological cardiac responses or altered regulatory mechanisms can cause heart disease. Therefore, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants have been tested and some are used clinically. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of mitochondrial DNA mutations, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ROS generation in the development of heart disease and recent developments in mitochondria-targeted antioxidants for the treatment of heart disease.


PubMed | Inje University, Laboratory Ion Channel Research and RAS Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology | Year: 2015

Echinochrome A (Ech A), a marine bio-product isolated from sea urchin eggs, is known to have cardioprotective effects through its strong antioxidant and ATP-sparing capabilities. However, the effects of Ech A on cardiac excitation-contraction (E-C) are not known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ech A on cardiac contractility and Ca(2+) handling in the rat heart. In ex vivo Langendorff hearts, Ech A (3 M) decreased left ventricular developing pressure to 77.76.5 % of basal level. In isolated ventricular myocytes, Ech A reduced the fractional cell shortening from 3.4 % at baseline to 2.1 %. Ech A increased both diastolic and peak systolic intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i). However, the ratio of peak [Ca]i to resting [Ca]i was significantly decreased. Ech A did not affect the L-type Ca(2+) current. Inhibiting the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger with either NiCl2 or SEA400 did not affect the Ech A-dependent changes in Ca(2+) handling. Our data demonstrate that treatment with Ech A results in a significant reduction in the phosphorylation of phospholamban at both serine 16 and threonine 17 leading to a significant inhibition of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase 2A (SERCA2A) and subsequent reduced Ca(2+) uptake into the intracellular Ca(2+) store. Taken together, our data show that Ech A negatively regulates cardiac contractility by inhibiting SERCA2A activity, which leads to a reduction in internal Ca(2+) stores.


Nilius B.,Laboratory Ion Channel Research | Carbone E.,University of Turin
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2014

T-type Ca2+ channels have gained, 15 years after cloning, an immense interest as novel players in very unexpected cell functions, and its many relations to diseases have been discovered. This special issue provides a state-of-the-art overview on novel functional properties of T-type Ca 2+ channels, unexpected cellular functions, and most importantly will also summarizes and review the involvement of this "tiny, transient" type of Ca2+ channels in several diseases. It is tried to bridge the gap between molecular biophysical properties of T-type Ca2+ channels and diseases providing finally a translational view on this amazing ion channel. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Camacho N.,University of California at Los Angeles | Krakow D.,University of California at Los Angeles | Johnykutty S.,University of Rochester | Katzman P.J.,University of Rochester | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2010

Metatropic dysplasia is a clinical heterogeneous skeletal dysplasia characterized by short extremities, a short trunk with progressive kyphoscoliosis, and craniofacial abnormalities that include a prominent forehead, midface hypoplasia, and a squared-off jaw. Dominant mutations in the gene encoding TRPV4, a calcium permeable ion channel, were identified all 10 of a series of metatropic dysplasia cases, ranging in severity from mild to perinatal lethal. These data demonstrate that the lethal form of the disorder is dominantly inherited and suggest locus homogeneity in the disease. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that the mutations activate the channel, indicating that the mechanism of diseasemay result from increased calcium in chondrocytes. Histological studies in two cases of lethal metatropic dysplasia revealed markedly disrupted endochondral ossification, with reduced numbers of hypertrophic chondrocytes and presence of islands of cartilage within the zone of primary mineralization. These data suggest that altered chondrocyte differentiation in the growth plate leads to the clinical findings in metatropic dysplasia. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


PubMed | Laboratory Ion Channel Research, University of Maryland Baltimore County, University of Heidelberg and Pacific Northwest Diabetes Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neuroinflammation | Year: 2016

Harmful effects of activated microglia are due, in part, to the formation of peroxynitrite radicals, which is attributable to the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS2). Because NOS2 expression is determined by Ca(2+)-sensitive calcineurin (CN) dephosphorylating nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and because Sur1-Trpm4 channels are crucial for regulating Ca(2+) influx, we hypothesized that, in activated microglia, Sur1-Trpm4 channels play a central role in regulating CN/NFAT and downstream target genes such as Nos2.We studied microglia in vivo and in primary culture from adult rats, and from wild type, Abcc8-/- and Trpm4-/- mice, and immortalized N9 microglia, following activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, co-immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, qPCR, patch clamp electrophysiology, calcium imaging, the Griess assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation.In microglia in vivo and in vitro, LPS activation of TLR4 led to de novo upregulation of Sur1-Trpm4 channels and CN/NFAT-dependent upregulation of Nos2 mRNA, NOS2 protein, and NO. Pharmacological inhibition of Sur1 (glibenclamide), Trpm4 (9-phenanthrol), or gene silencing of Abcc8 or Trpm4 reduced Nos2 upregulation. Inhibiting Sur1-Trpm4 increased the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), as expected, but also decreased NFAT nuclear translocation. The increase in [Ca(2+)]i induced by inhibiting or silencing Sur1-Trpm4 resulted in phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin protein kinase II and of CN, consistent with reduced nuclear translocation of NFAT. The regulation of NFAT by Sur1-Trpm4 was confirmed using chromatin immunoprecipitation.Sur1-Trpm4 constitutes a novel mechanism by which TLR4-activated microglia regulate pro-inflammatory, Ca(2+)-sensitive gene expression, including Nos2.


Li L.,Chongqing Medical University | Chen J.,Chongqing Medical University | Ni Y.,Chongqing Medical University | Feng X.,Chongqing Medical University | And 8 more authors.
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2012

Nonalcoholic fatty liver is characterized by the fatty deformation and lipid deposition of hepatic parenchymal cells that are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. In this study, we report the effect of capsaicin on its receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel, in preventing fatty liver formation. Functional TRPV1 has been detected in hepatocytes and liver tissues. TRPV1 activation by capsaicin reduced lipid accumulation and triglyceride level in the liver from wild-type (WT) mice. However, these effects were absent in the liver from TRPV1-/- mice. Chronic dietary capsaicin increased the hepatic uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression in WT but not in TRPV1-/- mice (P<0.01). We conclude that TRPV1 long-time activation might prevent high-fat diet-induced fatty liver in mice through upregulation of hepatic UCP2. Dietary capsaicin may represent a promising intervention in populations at high risk for fatty liver. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Li L.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | Wang F.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | Wei X.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | Liang Y.,Chongqing Institute of Hypertension | And 11 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2014

High salt (HS) intake contributes to the development of hypertension. Epithelial sodium channels play crucial roles in regulating renal sodium reabsorption and blood pressure. The renal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel can be activated by its agonist capsaicin. However, it is unknown whether dietary factors can act on urinary sodium excretion and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function. Here, we report that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increased urinary sodium excretion through reducing sodium reabsorption in wild-type (WT) mice on a HS diet but not in TRPV1 mice. The effect of capsaicin on urinary sodium excretion was involved in inhibiting αENaC and its related with-no-lysine kinase 1/serum-and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase 1 pathway in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Dietary capsaicin further reduced the increased αENaC activity in WT mice attributed to the HS diet. In contrast, this capsaicin effect was absent in TRPV1 mice. Immunoprecipitation study indicated αENaC specifically coexpressed and functionally interact with TRPV1 in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Additionally, ENaC activity and expression were suppressed by capsaicin-mediated TRPV1 activation in cultured M1-cortical collecting duct cells. Long-term dietary capsaicin prevented the development of high blood pressure in WT mice on a HS diet. It concludes that TRPV1 activation in the cortical collecting ducts by capsaicin increases urinary sodium excretion and avoids HS diet-induced hypertension through antagonizing αENaC-mediated urinary sodium reabsorption. Dietary capsaicin may represent a promising lifestyle intervention in populations exposed to a high dietary salt intake. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

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