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Brill A.,Immune Disease Institute | Brill A.,Harvard University | Fuchs T.A.,Immune Disease Institute | Fuchs T.A.,Harvard University | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2012

Summary. Background:Upon activation, neutrophils can release nuclear material known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which were initially described as a part of antimicrobial defense. Extracellular chromatin was recently reported to be prothrombotic in vitro and to accumulate in plasma and thrombi of baboons with experimental deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Objective:To explore the source and role of extracellular chromatin in DVT. Methods:We used an established murine model of DVT induced by flow restriction (stenosis) in the inferior vena cava (IVC). Results:We demonstrate that the levels of extracellular DNA increase in plasma after 6h IVC stenosis, compared with sham-operated mice. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of Gr-1-positive neutrophils in both red (RBC-rich) and white (platelet-rich) parts of thrombi. Citrullinated histone H3 (CitH3), an element of NETs' structure, was present only in the red part of thrombi and was frequently associated with the Gr-1 antigen. Immunofluorescent staining of thrombi showed proximity of extracellular CitH3 and von Willebrand factor (VWF), a platelet adhesion molecule crucial for thrombus development in this model. Infusion of Deoxyribonuclease 1 (DNase 1) protected mice from DVT after 6h and also 48h IVC stenosis. Infusion of an unfractionated mixture of calf thymus histones increased plasma VWF and promoted DVT early after stenosis application. Conclusions:Extracellular chromatin, likely originating from neutrophils, is a structural part of a venous thrombus and both the DNA scaffold and histones appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of DVT in mice. NETs may provide new targets for DVT drug development. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Source


De Meyer S.F.,Harvard University | De Meyer S.F.,Laboratory for Thrombosis Research | Suidan G.L.,Harvard University | Fuchs T.A.,Harvard University | And 2 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2012

Objective-Recently, a growing number of studies have revealed a prothrombotic and cytotoxic role for extracellular chromatin. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is characterized by a significant amount of cell death and neutrophil activation, both of which may result in the release of chromatin. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of extracellular chromatin in ischemic stroke using a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Methods and Results-Similar to reports in stroke patients, we observed increased levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA after ischemic stroke in mice. In addition, we observed that general hypoxia also augmented extracellular chromatin. We hypothesized that targeting extracellular chromatin components would be protective in ischemic stroke. Indeed, treatment with recombinant human DNase 1 significantly improved stroke outcome. Neutralization of histones using an antihistone antibody was also protective as evidenced by smaller infarct volumes, whereas increasing levels of extracellular histones via histone infusion exacerbated stroke outcome by increasing infarct size and worsening functional outcome. Conclusion-Our results indicate that extracellular chromatin is generated and is detrimental during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in mice. Targeting DNA and histones may be a new therapeutic strategy to limit injury resulting from ischemic stroke. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


De Meyer S.F.,Immune Disease Institute | De Meyer S.F.,Harvard University | De Meyer S.F.,Laboratory for Thrombosis Research | Stoll G.,University of Wurzburg | And 3 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2012

Thrombus formation is of paramount importance in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke. Current antithrombotics used to treat or prevent cerebral ischemia are only moderately effective or bear an increased risk of severe bleeding. von Willebrand factor (VWF) has long been known to be a key player in thrombus formation at sites of vascular damage. While the association between VWF and coronary heart disease has been well studied, knowledge about the role of VWF in stroke is much more limited. However, in recent years, an increasing amount of clinical and preclinical evidence has revealed the critical involvement of VWF in stroke development. This review summarizes the latest insights into the pathophysiologic role of VWF-related processes in ischemic brain injury under experimental conditions and in humans. Potential clinical merits of novel inhibitors of VWF-mediated platelet adhesion and activation as powerful and safe tools to combat thromboembolic disorders including ischemic stroke are discussed. Preclinical and clinical evidence illustrates an important role of VWF in ischemic stroke, suggesting that VWF could become a promising target in stroke therapy. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Brill A.,Immune Disease Institute | Brill A.,Harvard University | Yesilaltay A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | De Meyer S.F.,Immune Disease Institute | And 9 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2012

Objective-Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism are frequent causes of morbidity and mortality. The goal of our study was to determine whether plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which inversely correlates with the risk of cardiovascular events, affects DVT. Methods and Results-Using a murine DVT model of inferior vena cava stenosis, we demonstrated that deficiency of the HDL receptor, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), promotes venous thrombosis. As SR-BI mice have increased plasma cholesterol levels and abnormal HDL particles, we tested SR-BI mice with an SR-BI liver transgene that normalizes both parameters. These mice also exhibited increased susceptibility to DVT, indicating a protective role of extrahepatic SR-BI. Mice lacking the major HDL apolipoprotein apoA-I or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (a downstream target of endothelial SR-BI signaling) also had a prothrombotic phenotype. Intravenous infusion of human apoA-I, an HDL component and SR-BI ligend, prevented DVT in wild-type but not SR-BI or eNOS mice, suggesting that its effect is mediated by SR-BI and eNOS. Intravenous apoA-I infusion abolished histamine-induced platelet-endothelial interactions, which are important for DVT initiation. Conclusion-An apoA-I (HDL)-SR-BI-eNOS axis is highly protective in DVT and may provide new targets for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Barsam S.J.,New York Medical College | Barsam S.J.,University College London | Psaila B.,New York Medical College | Psaila B.,Imperial College London | And 9 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

This study investigated the immature platelet fraction (IPF) in assessing treatment effects in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). IPF was measured on the Sysmex XE2100 autoanalyzer. The mean absolute-IPF (A-IPF) was lower for ITP patients than for healthy controls (3.2 vs 7.8 × 109/L, P < .01), whereas IPF percentage was greater (29.2% vs 3.2%, P < .01). All 5 patients with a platelet response to Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietic agent, but none responding to an anti-FcγRIII antibody, had corresponding A-IPF responses. Seven of 7 patients responding to RhoD immuneglobulin (anti-D) and 6 of 8 responding to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) did not have corresponding increases in A-IPF, but 2 with IVIG and 1 with IVIG anti-D did. This supports inhibition of platelet destruction as the primary mechanism of intravenous anti-D and IVIG, although IVIG may also enhance thrombopoiesis. Plasma glycocalicin, released during platelet destruction, normalized as glycocalicin index, was higher in ITP patients than controls (31.36 vs 1.75, P = .001). There was an inverse correlation between glycocalicin index and A-IPF in ITP patients (r2 = -0.578, P = .015), demonstrating the relationship between platelet production and destruction. Nonresponders to thrombopoietic agents had increased megakaryocytes but not increased A-IPF, suggesting that antibodies blocked platelet release. In conclusion, A-IPF measures real-time thrombopoiesis, providing insight into mechanisms of treatment effect. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

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