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Ly H.G.,Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders | Ceccarini J.,University Hospitals Leuven | Weltens N.,Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders | Bormans G.,Laboratory for Radiopharmacy | And 4 more authors.
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics | Year: 2015

Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) defined by chronic epigastric symptoms in the absence of organic abnormalities likely to explain them. Comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders as well as with other FGIDs and functional somatic syndrome (FSS) is high. FD is characterized by abnormal regional cerebral activity in cognitive/affective pain modulatory circuits, but it is unknown which neurotransmitter systems are involved. The authors aimed to assess and compare in vivo cerebral cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor availability between FD patients and age-, gender- and BMI-matched healthy controls (HC). Methods: Twelve FD patients and 12 matched HC were investigated using positron emission tomography (PET) with the CB1 receptor radioligand [18F]MK-9470. Nine of the patients received a second PET scan after a naturalistic follow-up period of 36 ± 9.6 months (range: 25.2-50.4 months). Results: FD patients had significantly higher CB1 receptor availability in the cerebral regions involved in (visceral) nociception (brainstem, insula, anterior cingulate cortex) as well as in the homeostatic and hedonic regulation of food intake [hypothalamus, (ventral) striatum] (p < 0.05 corrected for multiple testing, region of interest analysis), which persisted after a follow-up period of 36 ± 9.6 months. Conclusions: Although these findings need replication in larger samples, they suggest that the abnormal brain activity in several of these regions, previously demonstrated in FD, may be due to a sustained endocannabinoid system dysfunction, identifying it as a potential novel target for treatment and warranting further studies to elucidate whether it is also a feature of other FGIDs or FSSs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Evens N.,Laboratory for Radiopharmacy | Vandeputte C.,IMIR K.U. Leuven | Muccioli G.G.,Leuven Drug Research Institute | Lambert D.M.,Leuven Drug Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

The type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) is part of the endocannabinoid system and is expressed in tissues related to the immune system. As the CB2R has a very low brain expression in non-pathological conditions, but is upregulated in activated microglia, it is an interesting target for visualization of neuroinflammation using positron emission tomography with a suitable radiolabeled CB2R ligand. In this study, we radiolabelled a fluoroethyl derivative of GW405833, a well known CB2R partial agonist, with fluorine-18 (half-life 109.8 min) by alkylation of the phenol precursor with 1-bromo-2-[18F]fluoroethane. In vitro studies showed that FE-GW405833 behaved as a selective high affinity (27 nM) inverse agonist for hCB2R. [18F]FE-GW405833 showed moderate initial brain uptake in mice and rats, but a slow washout from brain and plasma due to retention of a radiometabolite. Specific binding of the tracer to human CB2R was demonstrated in vivo in a rat model with local CB 2R overexpression in the brain. Optimized derivatives of GW405833 that are less susceptible to metabolism will need to be developed in order to provide a useful tracer for CB2R quantification with PET. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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