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Gaglo-Disse A.,University of Lome | Tona K.,University of Lome | Debonne M.,University of Lome | Aklikokou K.,University of Lome | And 2 more authors.
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica | Year: 2010

A total of 684 Hisex Brown day-old chicks were studied. The chicks were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: (1) chicks with immediate feed access; (2) chicks with 48 h delay in feed access, and (3) chicks with 72 h delay in feed access. For each group, chicks were assigned into 4 replications of 57 birds each. Prior to feed access, the chicks were weighed. Samples of chicks were used to weigh yolk sac at 1, 3 and 7 days and to collect blood at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 56 days. Also, reared chicks were weighed weekly. The results indicated that chick weights decreased during the holding period. Yolk sac utilisation was similar between groups, while morbidity and mortality increased linearly with the duration of delay in feed access. At 56 days, chicks having delayed access to feed were lighter than those without delay in feed access. Serum concentration of glucose up to 14 days and of total protein and triglycerides until 56 days decreased with the increasing duration of delay in feed access. It can be concluded that delayed feed access is detrimental to the juvenile performance of layer-type chicks and has a negative age-related effect on the serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides and total protein. © 2010 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. Source


Tona K.,University of Lome | Everaert N.,Laboratory for Physiology and Immunology of Domestic Animals | Willemsen H.,Laboratory for Physiology and Immunology of Domestic Animals | Gbeassor M.,University of Lome | And 2 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2013

1. Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of mixing eggs of different genotype and incubating with different CO2 concentrations on embryonic parameters. Half of the eggs were incubated in a CO2 controlled incubator (VCO2) during the first 10 d of incubation and the other half was incubated at standard incubation ventilation rate (SV). 2. From 10 to 18 d of incubation, thick albumen and embryos were weighed. Blood samples were collected at d 18 of incubation, at internal pipping and at hatch for determination of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and corticosterone concentration. During the last 2 d of incubation, hatching events of individual eggs were monitored every 2 h. 3. From 4 to 5 d of incubation in the SV group of Experiment 1, pH values of Ross strain chickens were lower than those of Isa Brown. From d 12 of incubation onwards, Ross embryos grew faster than those of Isa Brown. At 14 and 16 d of incubation, Ross eggs in the CO2 controlled incubator had lower albumen weights compared to all other treatments. 4. T3 concentrations in Ross embryos were higher than those of Isa Brown embryos. Chicken weight at hatch was in the following order: Isa Brown SV < Isa Brown VCO2 = Ross SV < Ross VCO2. 5. In Experiment 2, incubation time of VCO2 eggs until internal pipping, external pipping and hatch was significantly shorter than that of SV eggs. 6. It was concluded that mixing of hatching eggs of differential embryo developmental trajectory affects their hatching process. © 2013 Copyright British Poultry Science Ltd. Source


Nouboukpo K.E.,University of Lome | Tona K.,University of Lome | Kamers B.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Everaert N.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The effects of in ovo injection of L-carnitine on hatchability and juvenile performance of 360 layer-type chicks were investigated. Fertilized eggs were injected in air chamber with L-carnitine (500 and 1000 umol) dissolved in 0.9% of Saline (NaCI) at d 18 of incubation. Two control groups (non-injected and injected with 0.9% of Saline were also included. Hatched chicks was recorded after every 4 h, beginning at 490 h of incubation and ending at 514 h, for incubation length and hatching spread determination. At the end of incubation, hatched chicks were recorded according to treatment for determination of hatchability. At 3, 7 and 14 d post-hatch, chick body weight (BW) and morbidity were recorded. Also, at d 3 and 7 post-hatch, 14 birds from each of 2 replicate groups within each treatment were used for intestine and yolk sac weight determination. Results indicate that BW, hatchability, or relative intestine weights were not affected by treatment. However, incubation length was longer while hatching spread was shorter in L-carnitine groups compared to control groups. Yolk sac relative weight was decreased by treatment with L-carnitine (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of chicks showing morbidity sign was lower in L-carnitine treated groups from d 7 onwards. The results of the present study suggest that in ovo injection of L-carnitine at d 18 of incubation delayed hatching time but resulted in narrower hatching spread, faster utilization of yolk sac content and improved morbidity. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010. Source


Tona K.,University of Lome | Nouboukpo K.E.,University of Lome | Willemsen H.,Laboratory for Physiology and Immunology of Domestic Animals | Kamers B.,Laboratory for Physiology and Immunology of Domestic Animals | And 3 more authors.
Archiv fur Geflugelkunde | Year: 2013

L-carnitine enhances the transport of long chain fatty acids through mitochondrial membrane. It can be produced by animals' organism from lysine and methionine. However, it was reported that chicken embryos have a limited capacity to synthesize L-carnitine. For this study, hatching eggs from Ross and Isa Brown breeders of 35 wk old (600 eggs per line) were used. At d 18 of incubation, eggs from each genotype were divided into 4 groups i.e. control eggs, Saline (injection of saline solution), eggs injected with L-carnitine of 500 μmol (LC500) or 1000 μmol (LC1000). At hatch and 7 d post hatch, blood samples were collected for triglyceride, glucose, total protein, uric acids, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and corticosterone concentrations determination. Results indicate that hatchability and percentage of chick of optimal quality were higher in Ross than Isa Brown. Overall, layer chicks had higher levels of T4, total protein and uric acid than broiler chicks. With regard to L-carnitine injection, eggs of LC1000 groups had the lowest hatchability and this negative effect was more pronounced in Isa Brown eggs. At hatch and 7 d post-hatch, control chicks had the lowest levels of triglyceride and T3 but the highest levels of T4. At 7 d-old, the highest and the lowest levels of corticosterone were obtained in chicks of LC1000 and LC500 groups, respectively, compared to control and saline groups. In conclusion, L-carnitine administration during embryonic life affected differentially hatchability and blood parameters during post-hatch juvenile growth and this in a dose dependent manner. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. Source

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