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Schrijvers R.,Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy | Schrijvers R.,University Hospitals Leuven
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy

Introduction: Etravirine (TMC125) is an orally administered second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that is approved in treatment-experienced patients as addition to an optimized background therapy (OBT). Areas covered: A Medline search was conducted of Phase II-IV clinical trials, as well as a review of abstracts from major HIV and infectious disease conferences from 2010-2013, involving etravirine. Expert opinion: Etravirine is a well-tolerated NNRTI with a good safety profile and a higher genetic barrier for resistance compared to first-generation NNRTIs. Rash is a potential side effect but remains mostly mild to moderate. The necessity of taking it twice daily with food (200 mg bid.), potential pharmacokinetic interactions and low concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS) represent limitations. The efficacy of once daily etravirine (400 mg qid.) and the use in treatment modification/simplification strategies requires further research. Despite its favorable profile, etravirine is currently not sufficiently investigated nor approved for use in treatment-naïve patients which should be balanced against its potential as a backup NNRTI and the broad cross-resistance conferred by etravirine failure to other NNRTIs. Etravirine should be avoided following treatment failure with regimens containing rilpivirine, another second-generation NNRTI. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Van der Perren A.,Laboratory for Neurobiology and Gene Therapy | Casteels C.,Leuven University Hospital | Van Laere K.,Leuven University Hospital | Gijsbers R.,Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Visualized Experiments

In order to study the molecular pathways of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to develop novel therapeutic strategies, scientific investigators rely on animal models. The identification of PD-associated genes has led to the development of genetic PD models. Most transgenic α-SYN mouse models develop gradual α-SYN pathology but fail to display clear dopaminergic cell loss and dopamine-dependent behavioral deficits. This hurdle was overcome by direct targeting of the substantia nigra with viral vectors overexpressing PD-associated genes. Local gene delivery using viral vectors provides an attractive way to express transgenes in the central nervous system. Specific brain regions can be targeted (e.g. The substantia nigra), expression can be induced in the adult setting and high expression levels can be achieved. Further, different vector systems based on various viruses can be used. The protocol outlines all crucial steps to perform a viral vector injection in the substantia nigra of the rat to develop a viral vector-based alpha-synuclein animal model for Parkinson's disease. © 2016 Journal of Visualized Experiments. Source

van der Mark V.A.,Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research | de Jonge H.R.,Erasmus Medical Center | Chang J.-C.,Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research | Ho-Mok K.S.,Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research | And 5 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research

Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the phospholipid flippase ATP8B1. Apart from severe cholestatic liver disease, many PFIC1 patients develop extrahepatic symptoms characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), such as pulmonary infection, sweat gland dysfunction and failure to thrive. CF is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel essential for epithelial fluid transport. Previously it was shown that CFTR transcript levels were strongly reduced in livers of PFIC1 patients. Here we have investigated the hypothesis that ATP8B1 is important for proper CFTR expression and function.We analyzed CFTR expression in ATP8B1-depleted intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cell lines and assessed CFTR function by measuring short-circuit currents across transwell-grown ATP8B1-depleted intestinal T84 cells and by a genetically-encoded fluorescent chloride sensor. In addition, we studied CFTR surface expression upon induction of CFTR transcription.We show that CFTR protein levels are strongly reduced in the apical membrane of human ATP8B1-depleted intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cell lines, a phenotype that coincided with reduced CFTR activity. Apical membrane insertion upon induction of ectopically-expressed CFTR was strongly impaired in ATP8B1-depleted cells.We conclude that ATP8B1 is essential for correct apical localization of CFTR in human intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cells, and that impaired CFTR localization underlies some of the extrahepatic phenotypes observed in ATP8B1 deficiency. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

de rijck J.,Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy | Bartholomeeusen K.,Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy | Ceulemans H.,Tibotec BVBA | Debyser Z.,Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy | Gijsbers R.,Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy
Nucleic Acids Research

Lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a transcriptional coactivator involved in stress response, autoimmune disease, cancer and HIV replication. A fusion between the nuclear pore protein NUP98 and LEDGF/p75 has been found in human acute and chronic myeloid leukemia and association of LEDGF/p75 with mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)/menin is critical for leukemic transformation. During lentiviral replication, LEDGF/p75 tethers the pre-integration complex to the host chromatin resulting in a bias of integration into active transcription units (TUs). The consensus function of LEDGF/p75 is tethering of cargos to chromatin. In this regard, we determined the LEDGF/p75 chromatin binding profile. To this purpose, we used DamID technology and focused on the highly annotated ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) regions. LEDGF/p75 primarily binds downstream of the transcription start site of active TUs in agreement with the enrichment of HIV-1 integration sites at these locations. We show that LEDGF/p75 binding is not restricted to stress response elements in the genome, and correlation analysis with more than 200 genomic features revealed an association with active chromatin markers, such as H3 and H4 acetylation, H3K4 monomethylation and RNA polymerase II binding. Interestingly, some associations did not correlate with HIV-1 integration indicating that not all LEDGF/p75 complexes on the chromosome are amenable to HIV-1 integration. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

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