Frimurer T.M.,Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology |
Frimurer T.M.,Novo Nordisk AS |
Mende F.,Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology |
Mende F.,Novo Nordisk AS |
And 15 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2017
The G-protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by Zn2+. We used a homology model-based approach to identify small-molecule pharmacological tool compounds for the receptor. The method focused on a putative binding site in GPR39 for synthetic ligands and knowledge of ligand binding to other receptors with similar binding pockets to select iterative series of minilibraries. These libraries were cherry-picked from all commercially available synthetic compounds. A total of only 520 compounds were tested in vitro, making this method broadly applicable for tool compound development. The compounds of the initial library were inactive when tested alone, but lead compounds were identified using Zn2+ as an allosteric enhancer. Highly selective, highly potent Zn2+-independent GPR39 agonists were found in subsequent minilibraries. These agonists identified GPR39 as a novel regulator of gastric somatostatin secretion. © 2017 American Chemical Society.
Engelstoft M.S.,Novo Nordisk AS |
Engelstoft M.S.,Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology |
Engelstoft M.S.,Copenhagen University |
Lund M.L.,Novo Nordisk AS |
And 9 more authors.
Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2015
Chromogranin A (ChgA) is an acidic protein found in large dense-core secretory vesicles and generally considered to be expressed in all enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we characterize a novel reporter mouse for ChgA, ChgA-humanized Renilla reniformis (hr)GFP. The hrGFP reporter was found in the monoamine-storing chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, where ChgA was originally discovered. hrGFP also was expressed in enteroendocrine cells throughout the GI tract, faithfully after the expression of ChgA, as characterized by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified cells, although the expression in the small intestine was weak compared with that of the stomach and colon. In the stomach, hrGFP was highly expressed in almost all histamine-storing enterochromaffin (EC)-like cells, at a lower level in the majority of serotonin-storing EC cells and ghrelin cells, in a small fraction of somatostatin cells, but was absent from gastrin cells. In the small intestine, the hrGFP reporter was selectively, but weakly expressed in EC cells, although not in any peptide-storing enteroendocrine cells. In the colon, hrGFP was exclusively expressed in EC cells but absent from the peptide-storing enteroendocrine cells. In contrast, in the pancreas, hrGFP was expressed in _-cells, _-cells, and a fraction of pancreatic polypeptide cells. It is concluded that ChgA-hrGFP in the GI tract functions as an effective reporter, particularly for the large populations of still poorly characterized monoamine-storing enteroendocrine cells. Furthermore, our findings substantiate the potential function of ChgA as a monoamine-binding protein that facilitates the regulated endocrine secretion of large amounts of monoamines from enteroendocrine cells. © 2015 by the Endocrine Society.
Grunddal K.V.,Novo Nordisk AS |
Grunddal K.V.,Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology |
Ratner C.F.,Novo Nordisk AS |
Ratner C.F.,Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology |
And 26 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2016
The 2 gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are well known to be coexpressed, costored, and released together to coact in the control of key metabolic target organs. However, recently, it became clear that several other gut hormones can be coexpressed in the intestinal-specific lineage of enteroendocrine cells. Here, we focus on the anatomical and functional consequences of the coexpression of neurotensin with GLP-1 and PYY in the distal small intestine. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, laser capture, and triple staining demonstrated that GLP-1 cells in the crypts become increasingly multihormonal, ie, coexpressing PYY and neurotensin as they move up the villus. Proglucagon promoter and pertussis toxin receptor-driven cell ablation and reappearance studies indicated that although all the cells die, the GLP-1 cells reappear more quickly than PYY- and neurotensin-positive cells. High-resolution confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that neurotensin is stored in secretory granules distinct from GLP-1 and PYY storing granules. Nevertheless, the 3 peptide swereco secreted from both perfused small intestines and colonic crypt cultures in response to a series of metabolite, neuropeptide, and hormonal stimuli. Importantly, neurotensin acts synergistically, ie, more than additively together with GLP-1 and PYY to decrease palatable food intake and inhibit gastric emptying, but affects glucose homeostasis in a more complex manner. Thus, neurotensin is a major gut hormone deeply integrated with GLP-1 and PYY, which should be taken into account when exploiting the enteroendocrine regulation of metabolism pharmacologically. Copyright © 2016 by the Endocrine Society.