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Nika H.,Laboratory for Macromolecular Analysis and Proteomics | Nika H.,Yeshiva University | Nieves E.,Laboratory for Macromolecular Analysis and Proteomics | Hawke D.H.,University of Houston | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Techniques | Year: 2013

We previously adapted the β-elimination/Michael addition chemistry to solid-phase derivatization on reversed-phase supports, and demonstrated the utility of this reaction format to prepare phosphoseryl peptides in unfractionated protein digests for mass spectrometric identification and facile phosphorylationsite determination. Here, we have expanded the use of this technique to β-N-acetylglucosamine peptides, modified at serine/threonine, phosphothreonyl peptides, and phosphoseryl/phosphothreonyl peptides, followed in sequence by proline. The consecutive β-elimination with Michael addition was adapted to optimize the solid-phase reaction conditions for throughput and completeness of derivatization. The analyte remained intact during derivatization and was recovered efficiently from the silica-based, reversed-phase support with minimal sample loss. The general use of the solid-phase approach for enzymatic dephosphorylation was demonstrated with phosphoseryl and phosphothreonyl peptides and was used as an orthogonal method to confirm the identity of phosphopeptides in proteolytic mixtures. The solid-phase approach proved highly suitable to prepare substrates from low-level amounts of protein digests for phosphorylation-site determination by chemical-targeted proteolysis. The solid-phase protocol provides for a simple, robust, and efficient tool to prepare samples for phosphopeptide identification in MALDI mass maps of unfractionated protein digests, using standard equipment available in most biological laboratories. The use of a solid-phase analytical platform is expected to be readily expanded to prepare digest from O-glycosylated- and O-sulfonated proteins for mass spectrometry-based structural characterization. © 2013 ABRF. Source


Nika H.,Laboratory for Macromolecular Analysis and Proteomics | Nika H.,Yeshiva University | Nieves E.,Laboratory for Macromolecular Analysis and Proteomics | Hawke D.H.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Techniques | Year: 2013

A rugged sample-preparation method for comprehensive affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests has been developed. The method uses a series of chemical reactions to incorporate efficiently and specifically a thiol-functionalized affinity tag into the analyte by barium hydroxide catalyzed β-elimination with Michael addition using 2-aminoethanethiol as nucleophile and subsequent thiolation of the resulting amino group with sulfosuccinimidyl-2-(biotinamido) ethyl-1,3-dithiopropionate. Gentle oxidation of cysteine residues, followed by acetylation of α- and ε-amino groups before these reactions, ensured selectivity of reversible capture of the modified phosphopeptides by covalent chromatography on activated thiol sepharose. The use of C18 reversed-phase supports as a miniaturized reaction bed facilitated optimization of the individual modification steps for throughput and completeness of derivatization. Reagents were exchanged directly on the supports, eliminating sample transfer between the reaction steps and thus, allowing the immobilized analyte to be carried through the multistep reaction scheme with minimal sample loss. The use of this sample-preparation method for phosphopeptide enrichment was demonstrated with low-level amounts of in-gel-digested protein. As applied to tryptic digests of α-S1- and β-casein, the method enabled the enrichment and detection of the phosphorylated peptides contained in the mixture, including the tetraphosphorylated species of β-casein, which has escaped chemical procedures reported previously. The isolates proved highly suitable for mapping the sites of phosphorylation by collisionally induced dissociation. β-Elimination, with consecutive Michael addition, expanded the use of the solid-phase-based enrichment strategy to phosphothreonyl peptides and to phosphoseryl/phosphothreonyl peptides derived from prolinedirected kinase substrates and to their O-sulfono- and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc)-modified counterparts. Solid-phase enzymatic dephosphorylation proved to be a viable tool to condition O-GlcNAcylated peptide in mixtures with phosphopeptides for selective affinity purification. Acetylation, as an integral step of the sample-preparation method, precluded reduction in recovery of the thiolation substrate caused by intrapeptide lysine-dehydroalanine cross-link formation. The solid-phase analytical platform provides robustness and simplicity of operation using equipment readily available in most biological laboratories and is expected to accommodate additional chemistries to expand the scope of solid-phase serial derivatization for protein structural characterization. © 2013 ABRF. Source

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