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Pauwels N.S.,Ghent University | Bracke K.R.,Ghent University | Maes T.,Ghent University | Van Pottelberge G.R.,Ghent University | And 5 more authors.
Respiratory Research | Year: 2010

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with abnormal inflammatory responses and structural alterations of the airways, lung parenchyma and pulmonary vasculature. Since Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a tuner of inflammatory responses and is produced by endothelial and inflammatory cells upon stimuli such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), we hypothesized that PTX3 is involved in COPD pathogenesis.Methods and Results: We evaluated whether cigarette smoke (CS) triggers pulmonary and systemic PTX3 expression in vivo in a murine model of COPD. Using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, we observed PTX3 expression in endothelial cells of lung venules and veins but not in lung arteries, airways and parenchyma. Moreover, ELISA on lung homogenates and semi-quantitative scoring of IHC-stained sections revealed a significant upregulation of PTX3 upon subacute and chronic CS exposure. Interestingly, PTX3 expression was not enhanced upon subacute CS exposure in IL-1RI KO mice, suggesting that the IL-1 pathway is implicated in CS-induced expression of vascular PTX3. Serum PTX3 levels increased rapidly but transiently after acute CS exposure.To elucidate the functional role of PTX3 in CS-induced responses, we examined pulmonary inflammation, protease/antiprotease balance, emphysema and body weight changes in WT and Ptx3 KO mice. CS-induced pulmonary inflammation, peribronchial lymphoid aggregates, increase in MMP-12/TIMP-1 mRNA ratio, emphysema and failure to gain weight were not significantly different in Ptx3 KO mice compared to WT mice. In addition, Ptx3 deficiency did not affect the CS-induced alterations in the pulmonary (mRNA and protein) expression of VEGF-A and FGF-2, which are crucial regulators of angiogenesis.Conclusions: CS increases pulmonary PTX3 expression in an IL-1 dependent manner. However, our results suggest that either PTX3 is not critical in CS-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema and body weight changes, or that its role can be fulfilled by other mediators with overlapping activities. © 2010 Pauwels et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Solinas G.,Laboratory for Immunology and Inflammation | Marchesi F.,Laboratory for Immunology and Inflammation | Garlanda C.,Laboratory for Immunology and Inflammation | Mantovani A.,Laboratory for Immunology and Inflammation | And 2 more authors.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2010

Inflammation has been suggested to represent the seventh hallmark of cancer. Myelomonocytic cells are a key component of cancer-related inflammation. Tumor-associated macrophages and their mediators affect key elements in the multistep process of invasion and metastasis, from interaction with the extracellular matrix to the construction of a premetastatic niche. Evidence indicating that inflammatory mediators affect genetic stability and cause persistent epigenetic alterations suggests that inflammatory components of the tumor microenvironment impacts on fundamental mechanisms responsible for the generation of metastatic variants. These results provide impetus for efforts aimed at translating cancer-related inflammation into diagnostic-prognostic markers and innovative therapeutic strategies. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source

Bottazzi B.,Laboratory for Immunology and Inflammation | Doni A.,Laboratory for Immunology and Inflammation | Garlanda C.,Laboratory for Immunology and Inflammation | Mantovani A.,Laboratory for Immunology and Inflammation | Mantovani A.,University of Milan
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2010

The innate immune system consists of a cellular and a humoral arm. Pentraxins (e.g., the short pentraxin C reactive protein and the long pentraxin PTX3) are key components of the humoral arm of innate immunity which also includes complement components, collectins, and ficolins. In response to microorganisms and tissue damage, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells are major sources of fluid-phase pattern-recognition molecules (PRMs) belonging to different molecular classes. Humoral PRMs in turn interact with and regulate cellular effectors. Effector mechanisms of the humoral innate immune system include activation and regulation of the complement cascade; agglutination and neutralization; facilitation of recognition via cellular receptors (opsonization); and regulation of inflammation. Thus, the humoral arm of innate immunity is an integrated system consisting of different molecules and sharing functional outputs with antibodies. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

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