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Paoli D.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Giannandrea F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Gallo M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Turci R.,Laboratory for Environmental and Toxicological Testing | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation | Year: 2015

Purpose: We carried out a case-control study to investigate the possible role of occupational and environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors in the onset of testicular cancer (TC). Methods: We evaluated 125 TC patients and 103 controls. Seminal fluid examination and organochlorine analysis were performed in all subjects. Cases and controls were also interviewed using a structured questionnaire to collect demographic information, residence, andrological medical history and dietary information. Results: We found that a higher level of reproductive tract birth defects was associated with a higher risk of TC. With regard to diet, cases reported a higher consumption of milk and dairy products than controls. Overall, there was a statistically significant increase in TC risk in cases with detectable values of total polychlorinated organic compounds against controls (14.4 vs. 1.0 %; p < 0.001). TC patients with detectable levels of organochlorines had lower mean semen parameters than those with undetectable levels, although this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently included dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Group 1 of known human carcinogens. Our study confirmed and identified various risk factors for testicular cancer: cryptorchidism, consumption of milk and dairy products, parents' occupation and serum concentration of hexachlorobenzene and PCBs and, for the first time, we showed the correlation between semen quality and the serum concentration of these pollutants. © 2015 Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE). Source

Poggi G.,IRCCS Fondazione S. Maugeri | Pozzi E.,IRCCS Fondazione S. Maugeri | Riccardi A.,IRCCS Fondazione S. Maugeri | Tonini S.,IRCCS Fondazione S. Maugeri | And 8 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2010

Background: Image-guided transcatheter hepatic chemoembolization (TACE) is accepted worldwide as an effective treatment for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and for adequate preservation of liver function. Although considered relatively safe, TACE has been associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the complications associated with TACE therapy and to correlate it with certain risk factors, either well-known or not yet evaluated. Patients and Methods: A total of 330 chemoembolization procedures performed in 170 patients (117 males and 53 females) over a period of 64 months were retrospectively analysed. Among the patients, 123 had hepatocellular carcinoma, 10 had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 37 had hepatic metastases. The variables considered were: tumour histotype, bilioenteric anastomosis, previous or combined treatment with radiofrequency thermal ablation, antibiotic prophylaxis, chemotherapeutic agents, use of new drug-eluting microspheres, comorbidities such as diabetes, patient age and the presence of vascular anatomical variations. Results: A total of 30 complications occurred in 27 procedures. The total complication rate per procedure was 9.1% and approximately 75% of patients had postembolization syndrome. The difference in the prevalence of complications was statistically significant in the group of diabetic patients (13.3%) compared to the remaining patients (6.3%) (p=0.002) and in patients with biliary stents (25%) compared to those without stents (7.75%) (p=0.027). Conclusion: These data show that diabetes mellitus and the presence of bilioenteric anastomosis are risk factors for developing complications after TACE. The use of new drugeluting microspheres did not increase the risk of complications. Source

Sottani C.,Laboratory for Environmental and Toxicological Testing | Poggi G.,IRCCS Fondazione S. Maugeri | Quaretti P.,IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo | Regazzi M.,Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratory | And 9 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2012

Aim: The purpose of this study was the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile assessment in the serum of patients affected by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with drugeluting beads. Patients and Methods: This study included 20 patients, 12 treated with DC Bead® and 8 with HepaSphere Microsphere®, preloaded with epirubicin. No patient randomization was used for the inclusion in one group or in the other. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from all patients after the treatment, until 24 hours past the procedure. Results: The pharmacokinetic study showed low peak serum epirubicin concentrations with greater drug exposure for the DC Bead® group (p<0.05). The highest drug concentration after microsphere injection was observed at 5 minutes in all 20 patients. In the time interval between 1 and 24 hours after TACE, persisting levels of epirubicin were detected in peripheral blood samples. Conclusion: A persistent and sustained drug elution for both types of microparticles was found. Source

Mrema E.J.,University of Milan | Mrema E.J.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Rubino F.M.,University of Milan | Mandic-Rajcevic S.,University of Milan | And 6 more authors.
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2013

Despite extensive use of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in Italy in the 1940s to 1970s, especially for public health control ofmalariamosquitoes, information on their exposure levels among the general population is limited. TheseOCPs can be a source of health risk to human. A total of 137 blood sampleswere collected fromresidents of the general population of three Italian towns,Novafeltria, Pavia and Milan, to determine the levels of eightOCPs in blood serum. The concentrations of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 1,1-dichloro-2-(o- chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE), 1,1-dichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p- chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1-dichloro- 2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane and 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Variations in serum concentrations of OCPs with respect to place of residence, gender, age and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated by non-parametric tests. p,p'-DDE and HCB were the most abundant and major contributors of total OCP concentration. Their levels differed significantly between the three towns with a trend Milan > Novafeltria > Pavia ( p < 0.0001). Females had significantly higher concentrations of HCB and p,p'-DDE than males in the overall population sample.HCB concentrations were significantly higher in females than in males ofMilan (p=0.029).We observed positive correlations of p,p'-DDE and HCB with age in Novafeltria subjects (r = 0.468, p = 0.004). Total OCP concentrations differed significantly across BMI categories (p = 0.018) in overall population. We have demonstrated a clear pattern of themainOCPs in a fairly large population. Generally, our study provides information on OCPs exposure among the Italian general population and provides indications for further investigations. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

Mrema E.J.,University of Milan | Mrema E.J.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Rubino F.M.,University of Milan | Mandic-Rajcevic S.,University of Milan | And 6 more authors.
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2014

Concentrations of 36 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in serum of 372 Italian residents of general population living in Novafeltria, Pavia, and Milan. Total PCB level differed significantly between these sites (p < 0.0001) with median concentrations of 836.50, 1354.57, and 2062.08 pmol/g lipid, respectively. However, there is no evidence for the difference in distribution of total PCB levels by genders. Total dioxin-like PCBs differed significantly (p < 0.0001) between the sites (median 109.78, 50.88, and 166.99 pmol/g lipid, respectively) and genders of Novafeltria and Pavia (p = 0.011 and 0.009, respectively). PCB 138, 153, 170, and 180 differed significantly between the places of residence (p < 0.0001) with higher values in Milan population. In the overall population, total PCB and PCB 138, 153, 156, 170, and 180 correlated positively with age (correlations range between 0.320 and 0.569, p < 0.0001). In Novafeltria, the correlations ranged between 0.545 and 0.670, and in Pavia, the correlations ranged between 0.516 and 0.666. In Milan, correlations with age range between 0.327 and 0.417 for total PCB and congeners 138, 153, and 180. With an exception of PCB 170, there was no evidence of significant difference in the distribution of most abundant PCB congeners and total PCB across the body mass index categories. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

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