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De Vos N.,Ghent University | Maton C.,Ghent University | De Vreese P.,Laboratory for Chemical Process Technology | Brooks N.R.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Based on a previously developed method for the synthesis of epibatidine analogues, a series of new ionic liquids, based on the 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1] heptane skeleton, have been synthesized. The chemical and physical properties of the ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N) and dicyanamide [N(CN)2] anions were investigated and they were found to exhibit very good electrochemical and thermal stabilities. Ionic liquids with the cationic part based on the structure of epibatidine (a 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1] skeleton) have been prepared. The chemical and physical properties of these ionic liquids with dicyanamide and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions were investigated and they were found to show very good electrochemical and thermal stability. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhang Y.,Catholic University of Leuven | Paepen S.,Catholic University of Leuven | Pinoy L.,Catholic University of Leuven | Pinoy L.,Laboratory for Chemical Process Technology | And 3 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2012

In view of wastewater recycling and industrial requirements to valorize nutrients and other valuable ions from waste streams, as well as to refine the product streams, a novel electrodialysis stack, denoted as selectrodialysis, was designed and used for ion fractionation. In this work, separation of sulphate from a NaCl/Na 2SO 4 mixture is investigated. Prior to the investigation, the selectrodialysis stack was qualitatively tested on a synthetic wastewater to study the potential of ion fractionation by using this novel configuration. Different approaches including changing of pH and current density were used to evaluate the effects on the stack selectivity, the current efficiency and the product (sulphate) purity. Furthermore, the optimized parameters were applied to produce a sulphate-enriched stream from sulphate-free solutions (NaCl solution) in the product stream. The results show that the sulphate purity can reach over 85% with the current efficiency of over 50%. It is proved that selectrodialysis is feasible and effective for chloride/sulphate fractionation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang Y.,k-Technology | Pinoy L.,Laboratory for Chemical Process Technology | Pinoy L.,Catholic University of Leuven | Meesschaert B.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 2 more authors.
AIChE Journal | Year: 2011

Electrodialysis (ED) can be applied in the food and fermentation industry for separating inorganic salts and organic ions from other fractions. However, the separation efficiency for small organic ions should be understood in detail. In this article, the membrane selectivity and transport mechanism of small organic ions from mixed salts by ion-exchange membranes are theoretically and experimentally investigated. First of all, the influence of current density on the solute flux (organic ions and inorganic ions) and on membrane selectivity (between organic ions and inorganic ions and between different organic ions) in ED has been studied. The selectivity was shown to be influenced by changing the applied current density. It was observed that separation of inorganic ions from organic solutes was feasible, but the selectivity was dependent on the size, charge, and functional groups of the organic ions. Furthermore, results imply that binary organic anions with larger molar mass (>130, i.e., aspartate and tartrate) can be adsorbed onto the membrane free volume and hence form a charged double layer, which affects membrane selectivity. Finally, competition between small organic and inorganic ions is discussed by comparison of the concentration profiles and current efficiencies of the different anions. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

Zhang Y.,Catholic University of Leuven | Zhang Y.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Pinoy L.,Catholic University of Leuven | Pinoy L.,Laboratory for Chemical Process Technology | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

In isolated locations, remote areas, or islands, potable water is precious because of the lack of drinking water treatment facilities and energy supply. Thus, a robust and reliable water treatment system based on natural energy is needed to reuse wastewater or to desalinate groundwater/seawater for provision of drinking water. In this work, a hybrid membrane system combining electrodialysis (ED) and forward osmosis (FO), driven by renewable energy (solar energy), denoted as EDFORD (ED-FO Renewable energy Desalination), is proposed to produce high-quality water (potable) from secondary wastewater effluent or brackish water. In this hybrid membrane system, feedwater (secondary wastewater effluent or synthetic brackish water) was drawn to the FO draw solution while the organic and inorganic substances (ions, compounds, colloids and particles) were rejected. The diluted draw solution was then pumped to the solar energy driven ED. In the ED unit, the diluted draw solution was desalted and high-quality water was produced; the concentrate was recycled to the FO unit and reused as the draw solution. Results show that the water produced from this system contains a low concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and cations derived from the feedwater; had a low conductivity; and meets potable water standards. The water production cost considering the investment for membranes and solar panel is 3.32 to 4.92 EUR m-3 (for 300 days of production per year) for a small size potable water production system. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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