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Lukic-Grlic A.,University of Zagreb | Mlinaric-Missoni E.,systemIC | Skaric I.,University of Zagreb | Vazic-Babic V.,systemIC | Svetec I.-K.,Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics
Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2011

In recent years, an evident rise in the frequency of candidaemia caused by non-albicans Candida species has been reported. In this paper we present three cases of clinically manifested candidaemia caused by Candida utilis in neonatal patients hospitalized in the same neonatal intensive care unit within a 6 month period. To the authors' knowledge, only two cases of C. utilis candidaemia have been reported in the literature to date, but neither of these involved newborns. Clinical resolution and elimination of C. utilis from the blood were achieved using liposomal amphotericin B or caspofungin in all patients. © 2011 SGM. Source


Bosnjak I.,Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics | Lepen Pleic I.,Croatian Institute Of Oceanography And Fisheries | Borra M.,Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn | Mladineo I.,Croatian Institute Of Oceanography And Fisheries
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

A multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism mediated by ABC binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins is an efficient chemical defence mechanism in sea urchin embryos. The aim of our work was to evidence whether exposure to sub-lethal doses of specific contaminants (oxybenzone (OXI), mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and trybutiltin (TBT)) would induce MXR transporter activity during embryonic development (from zygote to blastula stage) in purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos. Further, we present data on molecular identification, transport function, expression levels and gene localisation of two ABC efflux transporters-P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/P-gp) and sulfonylurea-receptor-like protein (ABCC9/SUR-like). Partial cDNA sequences of abcb1 and abcc9 were identified and quantitative PCR (qPCR) evidenced an increase in mRNA transcript levels of both ABC transporters during the two-cell, as well as an overall decrease during the blastulae stage. Calcein-AM efflux activity assay indicated the activation of multidrug resistance-associated protein/ABCC-like transport in the presence of HgCl2 and TBT in exposed blastulae. The in situ hybridisation of the two-cell and blastula stages showed ubiquitous localisation of both transcripts within cells, supporting qPCR data. In conclusion, ABCB1 and ABCC9 are constitutive, as are HgCl2, TBT and OXI-inducible ABC membrane transporters, coexpressed in the zygote, two-cell and blastula stages of the P. lividus. Their ubiquitous cell localisation further fortifies their protective role in early embryonic development. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Geric M.,Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health | Gajski G.,Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health | Orescanin V.,ORESCANIN Ltd. | Kollar R.,Advanced Energy Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2015

Boats are washed periodically for maintenance in order to remove biofoulants from hulls, which results in the generation of wastewater. This study aimed at evaluating the cyto/genotoxic and mutagenic properties of wastewater produced by pressure washing of boats. The chemical characterisation of this wastewater showed that Cu, Zn, V, Cr, Fe, Pb, and select organic contaminants exceeded the maximum allowable values from 1.7 up to 96 times. The wastewater produced negative effects on human lymphocytes resulting in decreased cell viability after 4 and 24. h of exposure. Chromosome aberration, micronucleus, and comet assay parameters were significantly higher after 24. h of exposure. At the same time, the Salmonella typhimurium test showed negative for both TA98 and TA100 strains at all of the concentrations tested. After the treatment of wastewater using electrochemical methods/ozonation during real scale treatment plant, removal rates of colour, turbidity and heavy metals ranged from 99.4% to 99.9%, while the removal of total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was above 85%. This was reflected in the removal of the wastewater's cyto/genotoxicity, which was comparable to negative controls in all of the conducted tests, suggesting that such plants could be implemented in marinas to minimise human impact on marine systems. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Bosnjak I.,Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics | Bojovic V.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Segvic-Bubic T.S.,Croatian Institute Of Oceanography And Fisheries | Bielen A.,Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics
Protein Engineering, Design and Selection | Year: 2014

Disulfide bonds (SS bonds) are important post-translational modifications of proteins. They stabilize a three-dimensional (3D) structure (structural SS bonds) and also have the catalytic or regulatory functions (redox-active SS bonds). Although SS bonds are present in all groups of organisms, no comparative analyses of their frequency in proteins from different domains of life have been made to date. Using the Protein Data Bank, the number and subcellular locations of SS bonds in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya have been compared. Approximately three times higher frequency of proteins with SS bonds in eukaryotic secretory organelles (e.g. endoplasmic reticulum) than in bacterial periplasmic/secretory pathways was calculated. Protein length also affects the SS bond frequency: the average number of SS bonds is positively correlated with the length for longer proteins (>200 amino acids), while for the shorter and less stable proteins (<200 amino acids) this correlation is negative. Medium-sized proteins (250-350 amino acids) indicated a high number of SS bonds only in Archaea which could be explained by the need for additional protein stabilization in hyperthermophiles. The results emphasize higher capacity for the SS bond formation and isomerization in Eukarya when compared with Archaea and Bacteria. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Mrvcic J.,Laboratory for Fermentation and Yeast Technology | Butorac A.,Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics | Solic E.,Laboratory for Fermentation and Yeast Technology | Stanzer D.,Laboratory for Fermentation and Yeast Technology | And 3 more authors.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter culture in food industry must be suitable for large-scale industrial production and possess the ability to survive in unfavorable processes and storage conditions. Approaches taken to address these problems include the selection of stress-resistant strains. In food industry, LAB are often exposed to metal ions induced stress. The interactions between LAB and metal ions are very poorly investigated. Because of that, the influence of non-toxic, toxic and antioxidant metal ions (Zn, Cu, and Mn) on growth, acid production, metal ions binding capacity of wild and adapted species of Leuconostoc mesenteroides L3, Lactobacillus brevis L62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L73 were investigated. The proteomic approach was applied to clarify how the LAB cells, especially the adapted ones, protect themselves and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metal ions. Results have shown that Zn and Mn addition into MRS medium in the investigated concentrations did not have effect on the bacterial growth and acid production, while copper ions were highly toxic, especially in static conditions. Leuc. mesenteroides L3 was the most efficient in Zn binding processes among the chosen LAB species, while L. plantarum L73 accumulated the highest concentration of Mn. L. brevis L62 was the most copper resistant species. Adaptation had a positive effect on growth and acid production of all species in the presence of copper. However, the adapted species incorporated less metal ions than the wild species. The exception was adapted L. brevis L62 that accumulated high concentration of copper ions in static conditions. The obtained results showed that L. brevis L62 is highly tolerant to copper ions, which allows its use as starter culture in fermentative processes in media with high concentration of copper ions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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