Laboratory for Biocrystallography

Leuven, Belgium

Laboratory for Biocrystallography

Leuven, Belgium
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Corver J.,Leiden University | Cordo' V.,Leiden University | van Leeuwen H.C.,Leiden University | Klychnikov O.I.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography | Hensbergen P.J.,Leiden University
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2017

In the past decade, Clostridium difficile has emerged as an important gut pathogen. This anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium is the main cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhea. Whereas much is known about the mechanism through which the C. difficile toxins cause diarrhea, relatively little is known about the dynamics of adhesion and motility, which is mediated by cell surface proteins. This review will discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the sortase-mediated covalent attachment of cell surface (adhesion) proteins to the peptidoglycan layer of C. difficile and their release through the action of a highly specific secreted metalloprotease (Pro-Pro endopeptidase 1, PPEP-1). Specific emphasis will be on a model in which PPEP-1 and its substrates control the switch from a sessile to motile phenotype in C. difficile, and how this is regulated by the cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP (3′-5′ cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Gazdag E.M.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology | Schobel S.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology | Schobel S.,Harvard University | Shkumatov A.V.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Structural Biology | Year: 2014

The Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. During infection of eukaryotic cells, the bacterium releases about 300 different bacterial effector molecules that aid in the establishment of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) among which SidC is one of these secreted proteins. However, apart from membrane lipid binding the function of SidC remains elusive. In order to characterize SidC further, we have determined the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of SidC (amino acids 1-609, referred to as SidC-N) at 2.4. Å resolution. SidC-N reveals a novel fold in which 4 potential subdomains (A-D) are arranged in a crescent-like structure. None of these subdomains currently has any known structural homologues, raising the question of how this fold has evolved. These domains are highly interconnected, with a low degree of flexibility towards each other. Due to the extended arrangement of the subdomains, SidC-N may contain multiple binding sites for potential interaction partners. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Borloo J.,Ghent University | Geldhof P.,Ghent University | Peelaers I.,Ghent University | Van Meulder F.,Ghent University | And 8 more authors.
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2013

The cysteine-rich secretory/antigen 5/pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) protein superfamily is composed of a functionally diverse group of members that are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The excretome/secretome of numerous helminths (parasitic nematodes) contains abundant amounts of CAP members termed activation-associated secreted proteins (ASPs). Although ASPs are necessary for the parasitic life cycle in the host, the current lack of structural and functional information limits both understanding of their actual role in host-parasite interactions and the development of new routes in controlling parasitic infections and diseases. Alleviating this knowledge gap, a 1.85Å resolution structure of recombinantly produced Oo-ASP-1 from Ostertagia ostertagi, which is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasites in cattle worldwide, was solved. Overall, Oo-ASP-1 displays the common hallmark architecture shared by all CAP-superfamily members, including the N-erminal CAP and C-terminal cysteine-rich domains, but it also reveals a number of highly peculiar features. In agreement with studies of the natively produced protein, the crystal structure shows that Oo-ASP-1 forms a stable dimer that has been found to be primarily maintained via an intermolecular disulfide bridge, hence the small interaction surface of only 306.8Å2. Moreover, unlike any other ASP described to date, an additional intramolecular disulfide bridge links the N- and C-termini of each monomer, thereby yielding a quasi-cyclic molecule. Taken together, the insights presented here form an initial step towards a better understanding of the actual biological role(s) that this ASP plays in host-parasite interactions. The structure is also essential to help to define the key regions of the protein suitable for development of ASP-based vaccines, which would enable the current issues surrounding anthelmintic resistance in the treatment of parasitic infections and diseases to be circumvented. © 2013 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved.

Nefedova V.V.,Moscow State University | Datskevich P.N.,Moscow State University | Sudnitsyna M.V.,Moscow State University | Strelkov S.V.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography | Gusev N.B.,Moscow State University
Biochimie | Year: 2013

Some physico-chemical properties of R140G and K141Q mutants of human small heat shock protein HspB1 associated with hereditary peripheral neuropathy were analyzed. Mutation K141Q did not affect intrinsic Trp fluorescence and interaction with hydrophobic probe bis-ANS, whereas mutation R140G decreased both intrinsic fluorescence and fluorescence of bis-ANS bound to HspB1. Both mutations decreased thermal stability of HspB1. Mutation R140G increased, whereas mutation K141Q decreased the rate of trypsinolysis of the central part (residues 5-188) of HspB1. Both the wild type HspB1 and its K141Q mutant formed large oligomers with apparent molecular weight ∼560 kDa. The R140G mutant formed two types of oligomers, i.e. large oligomers tending to aggregate and small oligomers with apparent molecular weight ∼70 kDa. The wild type HspB1 formed mixed homooligomers with R140G mutant with apparent molecular weight ∼610 kDa. The R140G mutant was unable to form high molecular weight heterooligomers with HspB6, whereas the K141Q mutant formed two types of heterooligomers with HspB6. In vitro measured chaperone-like activity of the wild type HspB1 was comparable with that of K141Q mutant and was much higher than that of R140G mutant. Mutations of homologous hot-spot Arg (R140G of HspB1 and R120G of αB-crystallin) induced similar changes in the properties of two small heat shock proteins, whereas mutations of two neighboring residues (R140 and K141) induced different changes in the properties of HspB1. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Chernyatina A.A.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography | Guzenko D.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography | Strelkov S.V.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Intermediate filaments (IFs) result from a key cytoskeletal protein class in metazoan cells, but currently there is no consensus as to their three-dimensional architecture. IF proteins form elongated dimers based on the coiled-coil structure within their central 'rod' domain. Here we focus on the atomic structure of this elementary dimer, elucidated using X-ray crystallography on multiple fragments and electron paramagnetic resonance experiments on spin-labelled vimentin samples. In line with conserved sequence features, the rod of all IF proteins is composed of three coiled-coil segments containing heptad and hendecad repeats and interconnected by linkers. In addition, the next assembly intermediate beyond the dimer, the tetramer, could be modelled. The impact of these structural results towards understanding the assembly mechanism is discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Weeks S.D.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography | Baranova E.V.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography | Heirbaut M.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography | Beelen S.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Structural Biology | Year: 2014

ATP-independent small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) are an essential component of the cellular chaperoning machinery. Under both normal and stress conditions, sHSPs bind partially unfolded proteins and prevent their irreversible aggregation. Canonical vertebrate sHSPs, such as the α-crystallins, form large polydisperse oligomers from which smaller, functionally active subspecies dissociate. Here we focus on human HSPB6 which, despite having considerable homology to the α-crystallins in both the N-terminal region and the signature α-crystallin domain (ACD), only forms dimers in solution that represent the basic chaperoning subspecies. We addressed the three-dimensional structure and functional properties of HSPB6 in a hybrid study employing X-ray crystallography, solution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), mutagenesis, size-exclusion chromatography and chaperoning assays. The crystal structure of a proteolytically stable fragment reveals typical ACD dimers which further form tetrameric assemblies as a result of extensive inter-dimer patching of the β4/β8 grooves. The patching is surprisingly mediated by tripeptide motifs, found in the N-terminal domain directly adjacent to the ACD, that are resembling but distinct from the canonical IxI sequence commonly binding this groove. By combining the crystal structure with SAXS data for the full-length protein, we derive a molecular model of the latter. In solution, HSPB6 shows a strong attractive self-interaction, a property that correlates with its chaperoning activity. Both properties are dictated by the unstructured yet compact N-terminal domain, specifically a region highly conserved across vertebrate sHSPs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Nefedova V.V.,Moscow State University | Sudnitsyna M.V.,Moscow State University | Strelkov S.V.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography | Gusev N.B.,Moscow State University
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013

Some properties of G84R and L99M mutants of HspB1 associated with peripheral distal neuropathies were investigated. Homooligomers formed by these mutants are larger than those of the wild type HspB1. Large oligomers of G84R and L99M mutants have compromised stability and tend to dissociate at low protein concentration. G84R and L99M mutations promote phosphorylation-dependent dissociation of HspB1 oligomers without affecting kinetics of HspB1 phosphorylation by MAPKAP2 kinase. Both mutants weakly interact with HspB6 forming small heterooligomers and being unable to form large heterooligomers characteristic for the wild type HspB1. G84R and L99M mutants possess lower chaperone-like activity than the wild type HspB1 with several model substrates. We suggest that G84R mutation affects mobility and accessibility of the N-terminal domain thus modifying interdimer contacts in HspB1 oligomers. The L99M mutation is located within the hydrophobic core of the α-crystallin domain close to the key R140 residue, and could affect the dimer stability. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chalova A.S.,Moscow State University | Sudnitsyna M.V.,Moscow State University | Strelkov S.V.,Laboratory for Biocrystallography | Gusev N.B.,Moscow State University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2014

Physico-chemical properties of four mutants (T164A, T180I, P182S and R188W) of human small heat shock protein HspB1 (Hsp27) associated with neurodegenerative diseases were analyzed by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, size-exclusion chromatography and measurement of chaperone-like activity. Mutation T164A was accompanied by destabilization of the quaternary structure and decrease of thermal stability without any significant changes of chaperone-like activity. Mutations T180I and P182S are adjacent or within the conserved C-terminal motif IPI/V. Replacement T180 I leading to the formation of hydrophobic cluster consisting of three Ile produced small increase of thermal stability without changes of chaperone-like activity. Mutation P182S induced the formation of metastable large oligomers of HspB1 with apparent molecular weight of more than 1000 kDa. Oligomers of P182S have very low thermal stability and undergo irreversible aggregation at low temperature. The P182S mutant forms mixed oligomers with the wild type HspB1 and the properties of these mixed oligomers are intermediate between those of the wild type HspB1 and its mutant. Mutation R188W did not significantly affect quaternary structure or thermal stability of HspB1, but was accompanied by a pronounced decrease of its chaperone-like activity. All mutations analyzed are associated with hereditary motor neuropathies or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2; however, molecular mechanisms underlying pathological effects are specific for each of these mutants. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Laboratory for Biocrystallography, Laboratory for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Antibodies and Vlaams Institute for Biotechnology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH | Year: 2016

Essentials Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. TAFI inhibitory nanobodies represent a promising step in developing profibrinolytic therapeutics. We have solved three crystal structures of TAFI in complex with inhibitory nanobodies. Nanobodies inhibit TAFI through distinct mechanisms and represent novel profibrinolytic leads.Background Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is converted to activated TAFI (TAFIa) by thrombin, plasmin, or the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex (T/TM). TAFIa is antifibrinolytic, and high levels of TAFIa are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disorders. TAFI-inhibitory nanobodies represent a promising approach for developing profibrinolytic therapeutics. Objective To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of inhibition of TAFI activation and TAFIa activity by nanobodies with the use of X-ray crystallography and biochemical characterization. Methods and results We selected two nanobodies for cocrystallization with TAFI. VHH-a204 interferes with all TAFI activation modes, whereas VHH-i83 interferes with T/TM-mediated activation and also inhibits TAFIa activity. The 3.05--resolution crystal structure of TAFI-VHH-a204 reveals that the VHH-a204 epitope is localized to the catalytic moiety (CM) in close proximity to the TAFI activation site at Arg92, indicating that VHH-a204 inhibits TAFI activation by steric hindrance. The 2.85--resolution crystal structure of TAFI-VHH-i83 reveals that the VHH-i83 epitope is located close to the presumptive thrombomodulin-binding site in the activation peptide (AP). The structure and supporting biochemical assays suggest that VHH-i83 inhibits TAFIa by bridging the AP to the CM following TAFI activation. In addition, the 3.00--resolution crystal structure of the triple TAFI-VHH-a204-VHH-i83 complex demonstrates that the two nanobodies can simultaneously bind to TAFI. Conclusions This study provides detailed insights into the molecular mechanisms of TAFI inhibition, and reveals a novel mode of TAFIa inhibition. VHH-a204 and VHH-i83 merit further evaluation as potential profibrinolytic therapeutics.

PubMed | Laboratory for Biocrystallography and University of Antwerp
Type: | Journal: Archives of biochemistry and biophysics | Year: 2016

Small heat shock proteins are ATP-independent molecular chaperones. Their function is to bind partially unfolded proteins under stress conditions. Invivo, members of this chaperone family are known to preferentially assemble together forming large, polydisperse heterooligomers. The exact molecular mechanisms that drive specific heteroassociation are currently unknown. Here we study the oligomers formed between human HSPB1 and HSPB6. Using small-angle X-ray scattering we could characterize two distinct heterooligomeric species present in solution. By employing native mass spectrometry we show that such assemblies are formed purely from heterodimeric building blocks, in line with earlier cross-linking studies. Crucially, a detailed analysis of truncation variants reveals that the preferential association between these two sHSPs is solely mediated by their disordered N-terminal domains.

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