Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC

Toledo, Spain

Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC

Toledo, Spain
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Martin J.C.G.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC | Martin J.C.G.,University of Leeds | Mahajan A.S.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC | Mahajan A.S.,Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2013

Observations of gas-phase iodine species were made during a field campaign in the eastern Pacific marine boundary layer (MBL). The Climate and Halogen Reactivity Tropical Experiment (CHARLEX) in the Galápagos Islands, running from September 2010 to present, is the first long-term ground-based study of trace gases in this region. Observations of gas-phase iodine species were made using long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS), multi-axis DOAS (MAX-DOAS), and resonance and off-resonance fluorescence by lamp excitation (ROFLEX). These measurements were supported by ancillary measurements of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and meteorological variables. Selective halocarbon and ultrafine aerosol concentration measurements were also made. MAX-DOAS observations of iodine monoxide (IO) display a weak seasonal variation. The maximum differential slant column density was 3.81013 molecule cm-2 (detection limit ∼7×1012 molecule cm-2). The seasonal variation of reactive iodine IOx (= I + IO) is stronger, peaking at 1.6 pptv during the warm season (February-April). This suggests a dependence of the iodine sources on the annual cycle in sea surface temperature, although perturbations by changes in ocean surface iodide concentration and solar radiation are also possible. An observed negative correlation of IOxwith chlorophyll-a indicates a predominance of abiotic sources. The low IO mixing ratios measured (below the LP-DOAS detection limit of 0.9 pptv) are not consistent with satellite observations if IO is confined to the MBL. The IOx loading is consistent with the observed absence of strong ozone depletion and nucleation events, indicating a small impact of iodine chemistry on these climatically relevant factors in the eastern Pacific MBL. © 2012. American Geophysical Union.


Saiz-Lopez A.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC | Plane J.M.C.,University of Leeds | Baker A.R.,University of East Anglia | Carpenter L.J.,University of York | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

Most recent advances in understanding of the sources of iodine are presented, the results of field observations are described, and the progress made in laboratory studies of elementary processes and nanoparticle formation as well as numerical modeling of reactive iodine chemistry and particle formation is discussed. A recent study in the shelf region of the English Channel shows that seawater C 2H 5I, CH 2ICl, CH 2I 2 and CH 2IBr exhibit similar though less pronounced trends in seasonality to CH 3I, with maxima in the summer months. Martino et al. showed that direct oxidation of I in the sea surface microlayer by atmospheric O 3 results in potentially significant production of reactive organoiodine compounds. Aiuppa et al. measured emissions of bromine and iodine from Mt. Etna passively with base-treated filters that capture only acidic species.


Saiz-Lopez A.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC | Von Glasow R.,University of East Anglia
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Halogen chemistry is well known for ozone destruction in the stratosphere, however reactive halogens also play an important role in the chemistry of the troposphere. In the last two decades, an increasing number of reactive halogen species have been detected in a wide range of environmental conditions from the polar to the tropical troposphere. Growing observational evidence suggests a regional to global relevance of reactive halogens for the oxidising capacity of the troposphere. This critical review summarises our current understanding and uncertainties of the main halogen photochemistry processes, including the current knowledge of the atmospheric impact of halogen chemistry as well as open questions and future research needs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.


Jones A.E.,Natural Environment Research Council | Wolff E.W.,Natural Environment Research Council | Ames D.,Imperial College London | Bauguitte S.J.-B.,Natural Environment Research Council | And 12 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

Measurements of a suite of individual NOy components were carried out at Halley station in coastal Antarctica as part of the CHABLIS campaign (Chemistry of the Antarctic Boundary Layer and the Interface with Snow). Conincident measurements cover over half a year, from austral winter 2004 through to austral summer 2005. Results show clear dominance of organic NO y compounds (PAN and MeONO2) during the winter months, with low concentrations of inorganic NOy. During summer, concentrations of inorganic NOy compounds are considerably greater, while those of organic compounds, although lower than in winter, are nonetheless significant. The relative concentrations of the alkyl nitrates, as well as their seasonality, are consistent with an oceanic source. Multi-seasonal measurements of surface snow nitrate correlate strongly with inorganic NO y species (especially HNO3) rather than organic. One case study in August suggested that, on that occasion, particulate nitrate was the dominant source of nitrate to the snowpack, but this was not the consistent picture throughout the measurement period. An analysis of NOx production rates showed that emissions of NOx from the snowpack overwhelmingly dominate over gas-phase sources. This result suggests that, for certain periods in the past, the flux of NOx into the Antarctic boundary layer can be calculated from ice core nitrate data. © Author(s) 2011.


Kumar R.,University of Leeds | Saunders R.W.,University of Leeds | Mahajan A.S.,University of Leeds | Mahajan A.S.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

Secondary aerosol produced from marine biogenic sources in algal-rich coastal locations will initially be composed of iodine oxide species, most likely I2O5, or its hydrated form HIO3, formed as a result of iodine gas-phase chemistry. At present, there is no quantitative hygroscopic data for these compounds and very little data available for iodate solutions (HIO3 and I2O5 share a common aqueous phase). With increased interest in the role of such aerosol in the marine atmosphere, we have conducted studies of (i) the deliquescence behaviour of crystalline HIO3 and I2O5 at 273-303 K, (ii) the efflorescence behaviour of aqueous iodate solution droplets, and (iii) properties (water activity, density, and viscosity) of subsaturated and saturated iodate solutions. The deliquescence of I2O5 crystals at 293 K was observed to occur at a relative humidity (DRH) of 80.8±1.0%, whereas for HIO3, a DRH of 85.0±1.0% was measured. These values are consistent with measured water activity values for saturated I2O5 and HIO3 solutions at 293 K of 0.80±0.01 and 0.84±0.01 respectively. At all temperatures, DRH values for HIO3 crystals were observed to be higher than for those of I2O5. The temperature-dependent DRH data, along with solubility and water activity data were used to evaluate the enthalpy of solution (ΔHsol) for HIO3 and I2O5. A ΔHsol value of 8.3±0.7 kJ mol-1 was determined for HIO3 which is consistent with a literature value of 8.8 kJ mol -1. For I2O5, we report for the first time its solubility at various temperatures and ΔHsol Combining double low line 12.4±0.6 kJ mol-1. The measured water activity values confirm that aqueous iodate solutions are strongly non-ideal, consistent with previous reports of complex ion formation and molecular aggregation. © 2010 Author(s).


Mahajan A.S.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC | Mahajan A.S.,Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology | Gomez Martin J.C.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC | Gomez Martin J.C.,University of Leeds | And 10 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

Ship-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements of iodine monoxide (IO) and atmospheric and seawater Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer observations of methyl iodide (CH3I) were made in the Eastern Pacific marine boundary layer during April 2010 as a part of the HaloCarbon Air Sea Transect-Pacific (HaloCAST-P) scientific cruise. The presence of IO in the open ocean environment was confirmed, with a maximum differential slant column density of 5 × 1013 molecules cm -2 along the 1 elevation angle (corresponding to approximately 1 pptv) measured in the oligotrophic region of the Southeastern Pacific. Such low IO mixing ratios and their observed geographical distribution are inconsistent with satellite estimates and with previous understanding of oceanic sources of iodine. A strong correlation was observed between reactive iodine (defined as IO + I) and CH3I, suggesting common sources. In situ measurements of meteorological parameters and physical ocean variables, along with satellite-based observations of Chlorophyll a(Chl a) and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) were used to gain insight into the possible sources of iodine in this remote environment. Surprisingly, reactive iodine showed a negative correlation (> 99% confidence) to Chl a and CDOM across the cruise transect. However, a significant positive correlation (> 99% confidence) with sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity instead suggests a widespread abiotic source related to the availability of aqueous iodine and to temperature. © Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


Ordonez C.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC | Lamarque J.-F.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Tilmes S.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Kinnison D.E.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

The global chemistry-climate model CAM-Chem has been extended to incorporate an expanded bromine and iodine chemistry scheme that includes natural oceanic sources of very short-lived (VSL) halocarbons, gas-phase photochemistry and heterogeneous reactions on aerosols. Ocean emissions of five VSL bromocarbons (CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl) and three VSL iodocarbons (CH 2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2) have been parameterised by a biogenic chlorophyll-α (chl-α) dependent source in the tropical oceans (20 °N-20° S). Constant oceanic fluxes with 2.5 coast-to-ocean emission ratios are separately imposed on four different latitudinal bands in the extratropics (20° -50° and above 50 in both hemispheres). Top-down emission estimates of bromocarbons have been derived using available measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, while iodocarbons have been constrained with observations in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Emissions of CH3I are based on a previous inventory and the longer lived CH3Br is set to a surface mixing ratio boundary condition. The global oceanic emissions estimated for the most abundant VSL bromocarbons - 533 Gg yr-1 for CHBr 3 and 67.3 Gg yr-1 for CH2Br2 - are within the range of previous estimates. Overall the latitudinal and vertical distributions of modelled bromocarbons are in good agreement with observations. Nevertheless, we identify some issues such as the reduced number of aircraft observations to validate models in the Southern Hemisphere, the overestimation of CH2Br2 in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere and the underestimation of CH3I in the same region. Despite the difficulties involved in the global modelling of the shortest lived iodocarbons (CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH 2I2), modelled results are in good agreement with published observations in the MBL. Finally, sensitivity simulations show that knowledge of the diurnal emission cycle for these species, in particular for CH2I2, is key to assess their global source strength. © 2012 Author(s).


Mahajan A.S.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC | Sorribas M.,National Institute for Aerospace and Technology INTA | Martin J.C.G.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC | MacDonald S.M.,University of Leeds | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

Simultaneous measurements of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I 2) and ultrafine particles were made at O Grove, Galicia (42.50° N, 8.87° W), on the northwest coast of Spain. The observations show a strong tidal signature, and indicate that the most probable sources of reactive iodine species are the exposed macroalgae during low tide. For the first time, I 2 and I were concurrently measured revealing a high average I2/I ratio of ∼32, which is higher than previously inferred by modelling studies. A 1-dimensional photochemical model is employed to simulate the observations showing that the high I2/I ratio can be reproduced in the presence of fast vertical mixing close to the surface, or using an extra chemical loss for I atoms with an unknown species. There is a lack of strong correlation between the I2/I and ultrafine particles, indicating that although they both have macroalgal sources, these were not at the same location. The model simulations also suggest that the source of the observed ultrafine particles is likely not very close to the measurement site, in order for the particles to form and grow, but the source for I and I2 must be local. Finally, the effect of NOx levels on iodine oxides, and the conditions under which iodine particle bursts will be suppressed, are explored. © 2011 Author(s).


Gomez Martin J.C.,Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC | Blahins J.,University of Latvia | Gross U.,University of Latvia | Ingham T.,University of Leeds | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2011

We demonstrate a new instrument for in situ detection of atmospheric iodine atoms and molecules based on atomic and molecular resonance and off-resonance ultraviolet fluorescence excited by lamp emission. The instrument combines the robustness, light weight, low power consumption and efficient excitation of radio-frequency discharge light sources with the high sensitivity of the photon counting technique. Calibration of I 2 fluorescence is achieved via quantitative detection of the molecule by Incoherent Broad Band Cavity-enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy. Atomic iodine fluorescence signal is calibrated by controlled broad band photolysis of known I 2 concentrations in the visible spectral range at atmospheric pressure. The instrument has been optimised in laboratory experiments to reach detection limits of 1.2 pptv for I atoms and 13 pptv for I 2, for S/N=1 Combining double low line 1 and 10 min of integration time. The ROFLEX system has been deployed in a field campaign in northern Spain, representing the first concurrent observation of ambient mixing ratios of iodine atoms and molecules in the 1-350 pptv range. © 2011 Author(s).


PubMed | Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science CIAC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chemical Society reviews | Year: 2012

Halogen chemistry is well known for ozone destruction in the stratosphere, however reactive halogens also play an important role in the chemistry of the troposphere. In the last two decades, an increasing number of reactive halogen species have been detected in a wide range of environmental conditions from the polar to the tropical troposphere. Growing observational evidence suggests a regional to global relevance of reactive halogens for the oxidising capacity of the troposphere. This critical review summarises our current understanding and uncertainties of the main halogen photochemistry processes, including the current knowledge of the atmospheric impact of halogen chemistry as well as open questions and future research needs.

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