Saenz-Navajas M.-P.,University of La Rioja |
Saenz-Navajas M.-P.,Laboratory for Aroma Analysis and Enology |
Campo E.,Laboratory for Aroma Analysis and Enology |
Fernandez-Zurbano P.,University of La Rioja |
And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010
The objective of this work is measuring the effect of different volatile extract compositions on the perception of taste, astringency, global intensity and persistence of wine. Six Spanish wines, two from Chardonnay and four from Tempranillo grapes, all of them showing different chemical and sensory characteristics, were selected. Wines were separated into volatile and non-volatile fractions by solid phase extraction and lyophilisation and further liquid extraction, respectively. Eighteen "reconstituted wines" were prepared, combining different volatile extracts and different non-volatile matrices and adjusting ethanol content to 12% (v/v), and were further described by a specifically trained sensory panel. Taste attributes (sweetness, acidity, bitterness), astringency, aroma intensity, global intensity and persistence were assessed in both, original and "reconstituted" wines by using a numerical category scale. The sensory properties of the original wines were retained by their corresponding "reconstituted samples". The sensory assessment of the "reconstituted wines" showed that the addition of volatile fruity extracts from white wines brought about a decrease in astringency and bitterness and an increase in sweet perception in all cases. While global intensity and persistence of white wine matrices were also increased, they did not change in red wine matrices, which suggests that the volatile fraction plays only a secondary role in these attributes of red wines. Similarly, the effects of replacing the volatile fraction of a red wine by volatile extracts from other red wines were small and inconsistent, which confirms that taste and astringency are primarily driven by non-volatile molecules in these wines. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loscos N.,Laboratory for Aroma Analysis and Enology |
Hernandez-Orte P.,Laboratory for Aroma Analysis and Enology |
Cacho J.,Laboratory for Aroma Analysis and Enology |
Ferreira V.,Laboratory for Aroma Analysis and Enology
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010
The wines obtained by fermentation of a model medium supplemented with flavour precursors from different grape varieties (Muscat, Chardonnay, Grenache, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Verdejo, and Syrah) were submitted to an accelerated ageing at 50 °C for 9 weeks simulating maturation in the bottle. The volatile compounds coming from grape flavour precursors were extracted by SPE and determined by GC-MS at the end of the alcoholic fermentation and after 1, 3, and 9 weeks of ageing. In general, the biggest changes were observed in the first week of accelerated ageing, most compounds showing a significant increase and a further steady decrease in their concentrations. Unexpectedly, Riesling acetal, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN), and trans-1-(2,3,6-trimethylphenyl)buta-1,3-diene (TPB) also followed this trend. However, vanillin derivatives, furan linalool oxides, 3-oxo-β-ionone, actinidols, 4-ethylphenol, and guaiacol showed a continuous increase during the ageing process. Syrah and Muscat were the most different varieties after fermentation and also at the end of the process. Differences between the rest of the varieties increased during the accelerated ageing, and, in most cases, differences were in accordance with those observed after acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of the grape precursor extracts. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.