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Kenez A.,Laboratory for Applied Research | Peto A.,Laboratory for Applied Research | Gyulai F.,Szent Istvan University
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2014

In 2000, remains of an unknown Triticum species-later named 'new glume wheat' (NGW)-were identified in the archaeobotanical material of Neolithic and Bronze Age Greek sites. The presence of NGW was later reported from several other locations across Europe, from the seventh to the first millennium cal. b.c. During the systematic archaeobotanical survey of the multiperiod site of Hódmezo{double acute}vásárhely-Kopáncs I., Olasz-tanya (5310-2936 cal. b.c.) more than 2,000 cereal remains were recovered. During the morphological analyses, ten spikelet forks showed the distinctive traits of NGW, therefore morphometric analyses were conducted on the remains to reinforce the morphological identification. The results suggest that both approaches-morphological and morphometric-should be applied in parallel to securely separate the NGW remains from Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccum (Schrank) Thell. (emmer) and T. monococcum L. ssp. monococcum (einkorn). All NGW glume bases were recovered from Late Copper Age features (3338-3264 cal. b.c.) of the settlement, which represent the Baden culture of the Great Hungarian Plain. Similarly to other Baden culture sites of the Carpathian Basin einkorn and emmer dominated the crop production of the settlement. The ratio of the NGW remains within the cereal assemblage was measured to be 0.48 %, which suggests that NGW did not have the status of a regular crop; still it may have been part of the accompanying weed flora of the cereal fields during the fourth millennium in the south-eastern Great Hungarian Plain landscape. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Peto A.,Laboratory for Applied Research | Kenez A.,Laboratory for Applied Research | Prunner A.C.,Szent Istvan University | Lisztes-Szabo Z.,Debrecen University
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2014

Everyday life in past human societies and the use of specific activity areas within settlements can be explored through the study of the remains of material culture as well as through the application of soil and plant remains analyses. This paper presents the results of complex archaeobotanical and geoarchaeological analyses conducted on 33 samples from a Roman period (1st century ad) semi-subterranean building excavated at the site of Győr-Ménfőcsanak, western Hungary. The aim of this methodological experiment was to try to identify the inner space use of the building with the help of macro- and micro-archaeobotanical and geoarchaeological data. Samples from cultural sediment layers were collected in accordance with a total horizontal sampling strategy using a grid of 50 × 50 cm quadrats. The identified micro- and macrofossils found in the samples from the activity layer imply that a large amount of plant material connected to cereals (stem, leaf, glume, spike fragment, cereal grain fragment, etc.) was either processed or deposited inside the building. The overall interpretation of the distribution patterns projected on the inner space and the spatial evaluation of the data have enabled us to put forward hypotheses regarding the use of the building. Significant differences were detected within the interior space of the feature, which reflect a well-defined selectivity in internal space usage and distinction in activity areas. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Peto A.,Szent Istvan University | Peto A.,Laboratory for Applied Research | Kenez A.,Laboratory for Applied Research | Lisztes-Szabo Z.,Debrecen University | And 5 more authors.
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2016

Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) is accepted as typical ‘New World’ cultivated economic plant. Currently, two subspecies are known: L. siceraria ((Molina) Standl.) ssp. siceraria has an African origin, whilst ssp. asiatica is recognized to be originating from Asian territories. It only seldom appears in European archaeological contexts, however finds from the Roman period appear sporadically. Part of a Late Middle Age (14th–15th century) settlement was excavated near the town of Pócspetri (SE Hungary) and one of the refuse pits contained waterlogged remains of several dozen dicot leaves and small sized branches (e.g. Populus sp.). In addition an entire dog skeleton and an apparently 10 cm by 7 cm bottle gourd pericarp fragment were also found in a well-preserved pot. This fortunate recovery accounts for the first evidence of bottle gourd in the archaeobotanical record of Hungary and Eastern Europe. Due to its favourable preservation not only precise morphological analysis could be undertaken, but ancient DNA (aDNA) extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing were used to identify more closely its possible origin and taxonomic relations. Different diagnostic phytolith morphotypes of the pericarp were matched to reference material phytolith assemblages. The macro-archaeobotanical record of the feature reflects the botanical elements of the natural environment of this medieval site and places the unique bottle gourd find in context. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source


Salata D.,Szent Istvan University | Krausz E.,Szent Istvan University | Remenyi L.,Laboratory for Applied Research | Kenez A.,Laboratory for Applied Research | Peto A.,Laboratory for Applied Research
Agrokemia es Talajtan | Year: 2014

The present state of our landscapes is not only the result of various natural processes, but of the anthropogenic effect that humankind had since its occurrence within the landscape. These processes reach back as far as the beginning of the known archaeological eras. One of the major problems in the reconstruction of landscape evolution is bridging the gap between the archaeologically well-defined periods and the extensively documented last three centuries. Remains of the various archaeological periods are conserved in the soil and form part of the soil's memory function; but soils develop and might get destroyed over time. However, soils also bridge the heritage of once lived cultures with those events of the last few centuries that are reconstructable, based on written and map sources. It must be noted that the possibility of human-induced soil destruction is significantly higher within the mentioned centuries, therefore the understanding of land-use changes, land-use trajectories are essential in assessing the possible degradation of soils, archaeological sites and heritage.The present contribution attempts to integrate the tools of geoarchaeology, soil science and landscape ecology with the archaeological knowledge of the Cikola valley (Mezoföld, Hungary). The historic land-use changes within the target area of the valley were detected and quantified with the trajectory tracking method. This was compared to soil conditions, geoarchaeological data and to information collected through on-site archaeological field walking. The comparisons of archaeological sites that have been less or more intensively used in the past, differ both in soil conditions, and in the condition of the archaeological phenomena they preserve. The trajectory values gave a good estimate on the possible and predictable disturbance of the archaeological phenomena preserved at the examined sites. Source

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