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Maisons-Alfort, France

Fall E.H.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Diagne M.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Junker K.,Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute | Duplantier J.M.,Montpellier SupAgro | And 3 more authors.
Parasite | Year: 2012

Trichosomoides nasalis (Trichinelloidea) is a parasite of Arvicanthis niloticus (Muridae) in Senegal. Female worms that harbour dwarf males in their uteri, occur in the epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Young laboratory-bred A. niloticus were either fed females containing larvated eggs or intraperitoneally injected with motile first-stage larvae recovered from female uteri. Both resulted in successful infection. Organs examined during rodent necropsy were blood and lymphatic circulatory systems (heart, large vessels, lymphnodes), lungs, liver, kidneys, thoracic and abdominal cavities, thoracic and abdominal muscular walls, diaphragm, tongue, and nasal mucosa. Development to adult nasal stages took three weeks. Recovery of newly hatched larvae from the peritoneal fluid at four-eight hours after oral infection suggests a direct passage from the stomach or intestinal wall to the musculature. However, dissemination through the blood, as observed with Trichinella spiralis, cannot be excluded even though newly hatched larvae of T. nasalis are twice as thick (15 μm). Developing larvae were found in histological sections of the striated muscle of the abdominal and thoracic walls, and larvae in fourth moult were dissected from these sites. Adult females were found in the deep nasal mucosa where mating occurred prior to worms settling in the nasal epithelium. The present study shows a remarkable similarity between T. nasalis and Trichinella species regarding muscle tropism, but the development of T. nasalis is not arrested at the late first-larval stage and does not induce transformation of infected fibres into nurse cells. T. nasalis seems a potential model to study molecular relations between trichinelloid larvae and infected muscle fibres.

Portier J.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | Portier J.,Laboratory for Animal Health | Jouet D.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | Ferte H.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | And 4 more authors.
Parasite | Year: 2011

The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars' carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite's resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work.

Pavio N.,Laboratory for Animal Health | Pavio N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pavio N.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Meng X.-J.,Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Current Opinion in Virology | Year: 2015

The concept of zoonotic viral hepatitis E has emerged a few years ago following the discovery of animal strains of hepatitis E virus (HEV), closely related to human HEV, in countries where sporadic cases of hepatitis E were autochthonous. Recent advances in the identification of animal reservoirs of HEV have confirmed that strains circulating in domestic and wild pigs are genetically related to strains identified in indigenous human cases. The demonstration of HEV contamination in the food chain or pork products has indicated that HEV is frequently a foodborne zoonotic pathogen. Direct contacts with infected animals, consumption of contaminated animal meat or meat products are all potential means of zoonotic HEV transmission. The recent identification of numerous other genetically diverse HEV strains from various animal species poses additional potential concerns for HEV zoonotic infection. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Wang X.L.,Jilin University | Liu M.Y.,Jilin University | Sun S.M.,Jilin University | Liu X.L.,Jilin University | And 9 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

Trichinella spiralis infection confers effective resistance to tumor cell expansion. In this study, a T7 phage cDNA display library was constructed to express genes encoded by T. spiralis. Organic phase multi-cell screening was used to sort through candidate proteins in a transfected human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line (K562) and a human hepatoma cell line (H7402) using the display library. The protein encoded by the A200711 gene was identified and analyzed using protein analysis software. To test the antitumor effects of A200711, variations in cell proliferation and apoptosis were monitored after recombinant pEGFP-N1-A200711 was transfected into H7402 cells. The results show that the expressed target gene successfully induced apoptosis in H7402 cells as measured by Hoechst-PI staining, MTT assay (p< 0.05). This study warrants further investigation into the therapeutic use of A200711 for anti-hepatocellular carcinomas. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Mazeris A.,Laboratory for Animal Health | Soteriadou K.,Hellenic Pasteur Institute | Dedet J.P.,Montpellier University | Haralambous C.,Hellenic Pasteur Institute | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

In Cyprus, leishmaniasis has been considered exclusively a veterinary problem. It was prevalent before 1945, and until its recent reemergence, it was nearly eradicated by 1996 as a consequence of the destruction of reservoir hosts and vectors. A survey carried out to provide an unbiased estimate of current transmission rates in dogs and humans showed a 9-fold increase in dog seroprevalence (reaching 14.9%) compared with 10 years ago. However, no human cases caused by Leishmania infantum were detected, although L. donovani cases were reported recently. The 62 strains isolated from dogs were typed as L. infantum MON-1 (98.4%), which is the predominating zymodeme in the Mediterranean region, and MON-98 (1.6%). The Phlebotomus species P. tobbi (vector of L. infantum in Cyprus), P. galilaeus, and P. papatasi were the predominant species captured. Two transmission cycles seem to run in parallel in Cyprus: in dogs with L. infantum and in humans with L. donovani. Copyright ©2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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