Laboratory for Animal Health

Maisons-Alfort, France

Laboratory for Animal Health

Maisons-Alfort, France
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Pavio N.,Laboratory for Animal Health | Pavio N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pavio N.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Meng X.-J.,Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Current Opinion in Virology | Year: 2015

The concept of zoonotic viral hepatitis E has emerged a few years ago following the discovery of animal strains of hepatitis E virus (HEV), closely related to human HEV, in countries where sporadic cases of hepatitis E were autochthonous. Recent advances in the identification of animal reservoirs of HEV have confirmed that strains circulating in domestic and wild pigs are genetically related to strains identified in indigenous human cases. The demonstration of HEV contamination in the food chain or pork products has indicated that HEV is frequently a foodborne zoonotic pathogen. Direct contacts with infected animals, consumption of contaminated animal meat or meat products are all potential means of zoonotic HEV transmission. The recent identification of numerous other genetically diverse HEV strains from various animal species poses additional potential concerns for HEV zoonotic infection. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Tang B.,National Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Liu M.,National Institute of Parasitic Diseases | Liu M.,Jiangsu Electric Power Company | Wang L.,Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases | And 6 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: The intestinal phase is the early invasion stage of Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis), in which muscle larvae invade intestine epithelial cells and then develop into adult worms to breed newborn larvae. Thus, intestinal infective larvae are first exposed to the immune system of the host, and antigens from the worms may be the earliest marker in the diagnosis of trichinellosis and may contribute to vaccine development to prevent Trichinella infections in pigs. Methods: A cDNA library of intestinal infective larvae of T. spiralis at 6 hours post infection (p.i.) was constructed and immunoscreened using serum collected from pigs that were infected with T. spiralis at 26 days p.i. T. spiralis cystatin-like protein (Ts-CLP) gene encoding a 45.9 kDa protein was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The rabbit antisera were generated and used to determine the location of Ts-CLP in the parasite. Transcription levels of Ts-CLP in different developmental stages of T. spiralis were observed by RT-PCR. The potential application of recombinant Ts-CLP in diagnosis against T. spiralis infection was tested by ELISA. The immune protection of recombinant Ts-CLP protein against T. spiralis infection was evaluated in mice. Results: Thirty-three positive clones were selected from cDNA library, among which 20 clones encoded the same novel cystatin-like protein (Ts-CLP). Immunolocalisation and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that native Ts-CLP was localised primarily to β-stichocytes and that the Ts-clp gene was transcribed and expressed in all developmental stages of T. spiralis. The recombinant protein rTs-CLP was recognised by pig antiserum as early as 15 days p.i., and could induce protective immunity in mice, with a 61.21% reduction in the number of muscle larvae. Conclusions: These data preliminarily suggested that Ts-CLP may play an important role in the early infection of T. spiralis and that recombinant Ts-CLP protein is a candidate antigen for diagnosis and vaccine development in Trichinella infections. © 2015 Tang et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


PubMed | Jilin University, Laboratory for Animal Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca and Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases
Type: | Journal: Parasites & vectors | Year: 2015

The intestinal phase is the early invasion stage of Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis), in which muscle larvae invade intestine epithelial cells and then develop into adult worms to breed newborn larvae. Thus, intestinal infective larvae are first exposed to the immune system of the host, and antigens from the worms may be the earliest marker in the diagnosis of trichinellosis and may contribute to vaccine development to prevent Trichinella infections in pigs.A cDNA library of intestinal infective larvae of T. spiralis at 6 hours post infection (p.i.) was constructed and immunoscreened using serum collected from pigs that were infected with T. spiralis at 26 days p.i. T. spiralis cystatin-like protein (Ts-CLP) gene encoding a 45.9 kDa protein was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The rabbit antisera were generated and used to determine the location of Ts-CLP in the parasite. Transcription levels of Ts-CLP in different developmental stages of T. spiralis were observed by RT-PCR. The potential application of recombinant Ts-CLP in diagnosis against T. spiralis infection was tested by ELISA. The immune protection of recombinant Ts-CLP protein against T. spiralis infection was evaluated in mice.Thirty-three positive clones were selected from cDNA library, among which 20 clones encoded the same novel cystatin-like protein (Ts-CLP). Immunolocalisation and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that native Ts-CLP was localised primarily to -stichocytes and that the Ts-clp gene was transcribed and expressed in all developmental stages of T. spiralis. The recombinant protein rTs-CLP was recognised by pig antiserum as early as 15 days p.i., and could induce protective immunity in mice, with a 61.21% reduction in the number of muscle larvae.These data preliminarily suggested that Ts-CLP may play an important role in the early infection of T. spiralis and that recombinant Ts-CLP protein is a candidate antigen for diagnosis and vaccine development in Trichinella infections.


PubMed | Jilin University, Laboratory for Animal Health, Massachusetts General Hospital and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2016

Trichinella spiralis can cause immunosuppression during the intestinal phase of early infection. However, changes in the peripheral blood during T. spiralis early infection remain unclear. Here, select immune cells in mice infected with 500 muscle larvae (ML) of T. spiralis during the intestinal phase of infection were studied. First, the recovery rates of the intestinal worms and female fecundity were determined, and the results showed that the intestinal worms were completely eliminated at 17 days post-infection (dpi) and that large numbers of new-born larvae (NBL) were generated from 5 to 9dpi. Using flow cytometry, it was shown that the number of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells increased over the entire intestinal phase, except on 7dpi when CD4+ T cells decreased significantly compared to the control groups. Although both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased, CD8+ T cells increased more than CD4+ T cells, leading to a lower CD4+/CD8+ ratio compared to the control group. Subsequently, a depression of the proliferative response of T cells to concanavalin A (Con A) was noticed at 7 and 11dpi. Although the proliferative response of B cells to LPS was enhanced, the number of B cells from mouse peripheral blood stimulated by T. spiralis antigens showed no differences with the control group prior to 11dpi. The expression of CD14 on monocyte-macrophages decreased during the same period, which meant that the antigen-presenting response was reduced in the immune system of the infected mice. Moreover, the alternatively activated macrophages were induced in T. spiralis early infection. These data provide a better understanding of the development of the intestinal immune response in mice infected with T. spiralis.


PubMed | Jilin University, Laboratory for Animal Health, Massachusetts General Hospital and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2016

The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) released by the muscle-larvae (ML) stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ML-ESPs modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. Macrophages exert either beneficial or deleterious effects on tissue repair, depending on their activation/polarization state. They are crucial for skeletal muscle repair, notably, via their actions on myogenic precursor cells. However, these interactions during T. spiralis infection have not been characterized. In the present study, the ability of conditioned medium (CM) from J774A.1 macrophages treated with ML-ESPs to influence the differentiation of murine myoblasts, and the mechanisms of this influence, were investigated in vitro. The results showed that the expression of Myogenic Regulatory Factors (MRFs) MyoD and myogenin, myosin heavy chain (MyHC), and the p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor were reduced in CM treated cells compared to their expression in the control group. These findings indicated that CM inhibited myoblast differentiation. Conversely, CM promoted myoblast proliferation and increased cyclin D1 levels. Taken together, results of our study suggested that CM can indirectly influence myoblast differentiation and proliferation, which provides a new method for the elucidation of the complex mechanisms involved in cell-parasite and cell-cell interactions during T. spiralis infection.


Zocevic A.,Laboratory for Animal Health | Lacour S.A.,Laboratory for Animal Health | Mace P.,Laboratory for Animal Health | Giovani B.,Laboratory for Animal Health | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2014

A clone, designated L20h-Ts3, was selected by immunoscreening of cDNA libraries of Trichinella spiralis worms collected 14. h, 20. h and 48. h post-infection (p.i.) from mice intestines. L20h-Ts3 encodes the full-length of a conserved hypothetical protein of 13.1. kDa involving putative interaction with the immune system. PCR analysis showed that L20h-Ts3 mRNA is constitutively expressed throughout T. spiralis life cycle and not restricted to intestinal stages. The L20h-Ts3 fusion protein was obtained in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography before inoculation into mice in order to produce polyclonal antibodies. Then, immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis revealed its presence within the stichosome of T. spiralis and in excretory/secretory products strengthening a putative fundamental role for the parasite's survival such as host tissue invasion or modification of the host muscular cell phenotype. L20h-Ts3 fusion protein was recognized in Western blot as soon as 15-20 days p.i. by sera from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 muscle larvae (ML) of T. spiralis. Thus, an indirect L20h-Ts3 ELISA was designed and evaluated using sera from experimentally infected pigs by comparison with the only ELISA currently available for trichinellosis purposes. A gain of precocity from 7 up to 14 days and detection up to 25 weeks p.i. was possible with the L20h-Ts3 ELISA offering a large window for trichinellosis detection. The L20h-Ts3 ELISA was less effective in the case of low infections in pigs. Nevertheless, these results show that the L20h-Ts3 ELISA has a real interest due to its precocity and stability of detection in time. The association of the L20h-Ts3 fusion protein with other antigenic proteins identified previously could appreciably improve the serological test and facilitate its standardization. © 2014 The Authors.


Lacour S.A.,Laboratory for Animal Health | Heckmann A.,Laboratory for Animal Health | Mace P.,Laboratory for Animal Health | Grasset-Chevillot A.,Laboratory for Animal Health | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70g were stored at -21°C for 19, 30 and 56h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam® image analysis software and their infectivities were evaluated using mouse bioassays. Samples frozen for 19, 30 and 56h allowed recovery of mobile ML, but samples frozen for 1 or 2 weeks did not. Correspondingly, only T. spiralis and T. britovi larvae isolated from wild boar meat frozen for 19, 30 and 56h established in mice. This study showed that freezing at -21°C for 1 week inactivated T. spiralis and T. britovi ML encapsulated in wild boar meat for24 weeks. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Portier J.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | Portier J.,Laboratory for Animal Health | Jouet D.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | Ferte H.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | And 4 more authors.
Parasite | Year: 2011

The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars' carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite's resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work.


PubMed | Laboratory for Animal Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2014

A clone, designated L20h-Ts3, was selected by immunoscreening of cDNA libraries of Trichinella spiralis worms collected 14h, 20h and 48h post-infection (p.i.) from mice intestines. L20h-Ts3 encodes the full-length of a conserved hypothetical protein of 13.1kDa involving putative interaction with the immune system. PCR analysis showed that L20h-Ts3 mRNA is constitutively expressed throughout T. spiralis life cycle and not restricted to intestinal stages. The L20h-Ts3 fusion protein was obtained in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography before inoculation into mice in order to produce polyclonal antibodies. Then, immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis revealed its presence within the stichosome of T. spiralis and in excretory/secretory products strengthening a putative fundamental role for the parasites survival such as host tissue invasion or modification of the host muscular cell phenotype. L20h-Ts3 fusion protein was recognized in Western blot as soon as 15-20 days p.i. by sera from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 muscle larvae (ML) of T. spiralis. Thus, an indirect L20h-Ts3 ELISA was designed and evaluated using sera from experimentally infected pigs by comparison with the only ELISA currently available for trichinellosis purposes. A gain of precocity from 7 up to 14 days and detection up to 25 weeks p.i. was possible with the L20h-Ts3 ELISA offering a large window for trichinellosis detection. The L20h-Ts3 ELISA was less effective in the case of low infections in pigs. Nevertheless, these results show that the L20h-Ts3 ELISA has a real interest due to its precocity and stability of detection in time. The association of the L20h-Ts3 fusion protein with other antigenic proteins identified previously could appreciably improve the serological test and facilitate its standardization.


PubMed | University of Glasgow and Laboratory for Animal Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of virology | Year: 2016

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was discovered in Germany in late 2011 and then spread rapidly to many European countries. SBV is an orthobunyavirus that causes abortion and congenital abnormalities in ruminants. A virus-encoded nonstructural protein, termed NSs, is a major virulence factor of SBV, and it is known to promote the degradation of Rpb1, a subunit of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) complex, and therefore hampers global cellular transcription. In this study, we found that NSs is mainly localized in the nucleus of infected cells and specifically appears to target the nucleolus through a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) localized between residues 33 and 51 of the protein. NSs colocalizes with nucleolar markers such as B23 (nucleophosmin) and fibrillarin. We observed that in SBV-infected cells, B23 undergoes a nucleolus-to-nucleoplasm redistribution, evocative of virus-induced nucleolar disruption. In contrast, the nucleolar pattern of B23 was unchanged upon infection with an SBV recombinant mutant with NSs lacking the NoLS motif (SBVNoLS). Interestingly, unlike wild-type SBV, the inhibitory activity of SBVNoLS toward RNA Pol II transcription is impaired. Overall, our results suggest that a putative link exists between NSs-induced nucleolar disruption and its inhibitory function on cellular transcription, which consequently precludes the cellular antiviral response and/or induces cell death.Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging arbovirus of ruminants that spread in Europe between 2011 and 2013. SBV induces fetal abnormalities during gestation, with the central nervous system being one of the most affected organs. The virus-encoded NSs protein acts as a virulence factor by impairing host cell transcription. Here, we show that NSs contains a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) and induces disorganization of the nucleolus. The NoLS motif in the SBV NSs is absolutely necessary for virus-induced inhibition of cellular transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first report of nucleolar functions for NSs within the Bunyaviridae family.

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