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Chake Chake, Tanzania

Williams D.K.,Laboratory Division | Brown C.J.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education | Bruker J.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education
Forensic Science International

The chemistry of children's latent fingerprint residues was investigated as a function of time and temperature by non-destructive spectrochemical analysis. Latent fingerprints from children, ranging in age from 2 to 11 years, were deposited onto aluminum-coated glass slides and were analyzed by Fourier-Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy. The results revealed that there are three major classes of compounds present in children's latent fingerprints: carboxylic acid salts, proteins, and esters. By studying the changes in the fingerprint residues as a function of time and at elevated temperatures, we discovered that the salts in the fingerprint residues are stable relative to the esters. These findings have relevant forensic implications; by targeting the acid salts instead of the esters or proteins, children's latent fingerprints may be recovered after extended periods of time have elapsed. © 2011. Source

Christensen A.M.,Laboratory Division | Smith V.A.,Oak Ridge Associated Universities
Journal of Forensic Sciences

Forensic anthropologists have become increasingly involved in the interpretation of skeletal trauma caused by exploding ordnance. This study examines the cause and significance of butterfly fractures observed in a recent study investigating skeletal blast trauma by Christensen et al. Fractured ribs resulting from blast events carried out in the original study were re-examined revealing that rib butterfly fractures with the tensile indicator on the visceral surface were present in 100% of viable pig specimens. Additionally, manual fracture testing was performed on 46 pig ribs to simulate the bending force believed to have been sustained in the original blast events. Fracture testing resulted in 93% of specimens presenting butterfly fractures with the tensile indicator on the visceral surface. This fracture pattern differs significantly from that normally observed in association with other types of trauma events and may aid forensic anthropologists and other investigators in the identification and interpretation of blast events. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Source

Smith V.A.,Oak Ridge Associated Universities | Christensen A.M.,Laboratory Division | Myers S.W.,Emory University
Journal of Forensic Sciences

Several studies have investigated frontal sinus comparison for personal identification. One study addressed the statistical reliability of correct identification using automated digital methods and resulted in a 96% accuracy rate. Missed matches with the digital methods generally involved small, less featured sinuses. This study investigates the hypothesis that human examiners may be able to more accurately identify correct matches than digital methods, even when the comparisons involve small frontal sinuses. Participants were provided two sets of 28 radiographs and were instructed to identify matching radiographs and list the radiographs that did not have a corresponding match. Overall, error rates were low, with correct associations identified at a rate of 0.983. No incorrect associations ("false positives") were made. Correct association rates were highest among participants "experienced" examining radiographs. Results support previous assertions that frontal sinus radiographs are a reliable means of personal identification even when the frontal sinuses are small. 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2010. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A. Source

Speich B.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Ali S.M.,Laboratory Division | Ame S.M.,Laboratory Division | Bogoch I.I.,Toronto General Hospital | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases

Background: Existing anthelmintic drugs (eg, albendazole and mebendazole) have low efficacy against the intestinal nematode species Trichuris trichiura and the drug pipeline is exhausted. We aimed to investigate the strategy of combination chemotherapy with existing drugs to establish whether their efficacy could be enhanced and broadened. Methods: In this randomised controlled trial, we compared three drug combinations and one standard drug alone in children aged 6-14 years in two schools on Pemba Island, Tanzania infected with T trichiura and concomitant intestinal nematodes. We assigned children, via a randomisation list with block sizes of either four or eight, to orally receive albendazole (400 mg) plus ivermectin (200 μg/kg); albendazole (400 mg) plus mebendazole (500 mg); albendazole (400 mg) plus oxantel pamoate (20 mg/kg); or mebendazole (500 mg) alone. The primary endpoints were the proportion of children cured of T trichiura infection and the reduction of T trichiura eggs in stool based on geometric means, both analysed by available case. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN80245406. Findings: We randomly assigned 440 eligible children infected with T trichiura between Sept 2, and Oct 18, 2013, to one of the four treatment groups (110 children per group). Data for 431 children were included in the analysis for the primary endpoints. Albendazole plus oxantel pamoate (74 of 108 children cured [68·5%, 95% CI 59·6-77·4]; egg reduction 99·2%, 98·7-99·6) and albendazole plus ivermectin (30 of 109 cured [27·5%, 19·0-36·0]; egg reduction 94·5%, 91·7-96·3) were significantly more effective against T trichiura than mebendazole alone (nine of 107 cured [8·4%, 3·1-13·8]; egg reduction 58·5%, 45·2-70·9). Albendazole plus mebendazole had similar low efficacy (nine of 107 cured [8·4%, 3·1-13·8; egg reduction 51·6%, 35·0-65·3) to mebendazole alone. About a fifth of the children reported adverse events, which were mainly mild. Abdominal cramps and headache were the most common adverse events after treatment; abdominal cramps were reported by 13 (12·0%) children for albendazole plus ivermectin, 10 (9·3%) for albendazole plus mebendazole, 20 (18·2%) for albendazole plus oxantel pamoate, and 16 (14·5%) for mebendazole; headaches were reported by 5 (4·6%) children for albendazole plus ivermectin, 6 (5·6%) for albendazole plus mebendazole, 12 (10·9%) for albendazole plus oxantel pamoate, and 7 (6·4%) for mebendazole. Interpretation: Our head-to-head comparison of three combination chemotherapies showed the highest efficacy for albendazole plus oxantel pamoate for the treatment of infection with T trichiura. Further studies should investigate the combination of albendazole plus oxantel pamoate so that it can be considered for soil-transmitted helminthiasis control programmes. Funding: Medicor Foundation and Swiss National Science Foundation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Speich B.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Ame S.M.,Laboratory Division | Ali S.M.,Laboratory Division | Hattendorf J.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | And 3 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: Infections with soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) are widespread and often occur concomitantly. These parasitic-worm infections are typically treated with albendazole or mebendazole, but both drugs show low efficacy against T. trichiura. Albendazole is the drug of choice against hookworm. METHODS In this double-blind trial conducted on Pemba Island, Tanzania, we randomly assigned children, 6 to 14 years of age, to receive one of four treatments: oxantel pamoate at a dose of 20 mg per kilogram of body weight, plus 400 mg of albendazole, administered on consecutive days; oxantel pamoate at a single dose of 20 mg per kilogram; albendazole at a single dose of 400 mg; or mebendazole at a single dose of 500 mg. We assessed the efficacy and safety profile of oxantel pamoate-albendazole when used in the treatment of T. trichiura infection (primary outcome) and concomitant soil-transmitted helminth infection (secondary outcome). Efficacy was determined by means of assessment of the cure rate and egg-reduction rate. Adverse events were assessed four times after treatment. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 458 children, of whom 450 were infected with T. trichiura, 443 with hookworm, and 293 with A. lumbricoides. The cure rate of T. trichiura infection was significantly higher with oxantel pamoate-albendazole than with mebendazole (31.2% vs. 11.8%, P = 0.001), as was the egg-reduction rate (96.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 93.5 to 97.6] vs. 75.0% [95% CI, 64.2 to 82.0]). The cure rate with albendazole (2.6%) and the egg-reduction rate with albendazole (45.0%; 95% CI, 32.0 to 56.4) were significantly lower than the rates with mebendazole (P = 0.02 for the comparison of cure rates). Oxantel pamoate had low efficacy against hookworm and A. lumbricoides. Adverse events (mainly mild) were reported by 30.9% of all children. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with oxantel pamoate-albendazole resulted in higher cure and egg-reduction rates for T. trichiura infection than the rates with standard therapy. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

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