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Morabito R.,Messina University | Marino A.,Messina University | Romano P.,Laboratory | Rigano C.,Orthopedics | La Spada G.,Messina University
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Background: It has been reported that biologically active compounds extracted from Cnidaria venom may induce damage by oxidative stress. Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to oxidative stresses, which can contribute to sulphydril (SH-) group oxidation and cell membrane deformability accompanied with activation of K-Cl co-transport and inhibition of anion transport. In this regard, Band 3 protein is responsible for mediating the electroneutral exchange of chloride (Cl-) for bicarbonate (HCO3 -), particularly in erythrocytes, where it is the most abundant membrane protein. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of crude venom extracted from Pelagia noctiluca nematocysts on Band 3-mediated anion transport in human erythrocytes. Methods: Erythrocytes were tested for SO4 2- uptake, K+ efflux, glutathione (GSH) levels and concentration of SH-groups. Results: The rate constant of SO4 2- uptake decreased progressively to 58% of control with increasing venom doses, and showed a 28% decrease after 2 mM NEM treatment. These effects can be explained by oxidative stress, which was reflected by decreased GSH levels in venom-treated erythrocytes. Hence, the decreased efficiency of anion transport may be due to changes in Band 3 structure caused by SH-group oxidation and reduced GSH concentration. In addition, an increased Cl--dependent K+ efflux was observed in venom-treated erythrocytes. Conclusion: Our results suggest that crude venom from Pelagia noctiluca alters cell membrane transport in human erythrocytes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Reemtsma T.,German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment | Miehe U.,TU Berlin | Duennbier U.,Laboratory | Jekel M.,TU Berlin
Water Research | Year: 2010

1H-benzo-1,2,3-triazole (BTri) and its methylated analogues (tolyltriazole, TTri) are corrosion inhibitors used in many industrial applications, but also in households in dishwashing agents and in deicing fluids at airports and elsewhere. BTri and one of the TTri-isomers (4-TTri) are typical examples of polar and poorly degradable trace pollutants. Benzotriazole elimination in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Berlin ranged from 20 to 70% for 5-TTRi over 30 to 55% for BTri to insignificant for 4-TTri. WWTP effluent concentrations were in the range of 7-18 μg/L of BTri, 1-5 μg/L of 4-TTri and 0.8-1.2 μg/L of 5-TTri. BTri and 4-TTri proved to be omnipresent in surface waters of the rivers Rhine and Elbe with concentrations increasing from <0.05 μg/L to around 0.5 μg/L of BTri and 0.2-0.5 μg/L of 4-TTri over 600-700 km. Bank filtration is an important process to generate raw water for drinking water production from surface waters. Even after residence times of several months BTri and 4-TTri were determined in concentrations of a few hundred ng/L in bank filtration water. Isotherm data from batch experiments indicate that activated carbon filtration should be suitable to avoid intrusion of TTri into drinking water in partially closed water cycles. For BTri, however, sorption to activated carbon appears to be too weak and ozonation may be mandatory to remove it from raw waters. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Crivellaro S.,University of Turin | Leone I.,University of Turin | Bianco O.,Laboratory | Savoia D.,University of Turin
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2011

Nosocomial infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Recently, a worldwide increase of community-acquired MRSA infections has also been recorded. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of MRSA isolation from in- and outpatients admitted to an academic teaching hospital near Torino (northwest Italy) in 1 year and to characterize 90 clinical isolates of MRSA collected in the same period. Antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence in the isolates of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene were assessed. Molecular epidemiology was performed by SCC. mec and capsule typing, and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The global proportion of MRSA isolated was 33.1%. Characterization performed on 90 MRSA revealed a high percentage of resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, and the presence of the PVL gene in one strain only. Most of the MRSA strains circulating in the Torino district belonged to SCC. mec types II and I, and the 67.6% resulted positive for the cap 5 gene. The pulsotype analysis permitted to observe a clonal heterogeneity of the isolates and a higher similarity in relation to singular mec types; only few nosocomial clones could account for a local outbreak of a sporadic isolate. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Hirschler V.,Hospital Durand | Molinari C.,University of Buenos Aires | Maccallini G.,Laboratory | Aranda C.,Laboratory
Pediatric Diabetes | Year: 2010

Background: Different studies in adults have shown that obesity is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Objective: It was to (i) determine the association between albuminuria and age, gender, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (ii) relate albuminuria to gender and age in healthy school children. Methods: Over 1564 students (806 males) aged 9.35 ± 2.00 yr from 9 elementary schools in Buenos Aires, were examined between April and September 2005. BMI, WC, blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) were determined. Results: Over 220 (14.1%) children were obese (OB), and 300 (19.2%) overweight (OW) using centers for disease control (CDC) norms. Median ACR and urinary albumin levels were higher in normal weight children than in OW/OB children (p < 0.01). Median values for ACR were higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). OW/OB proved to be a protective factor against ACR [OR, 0.77 (95% CI 0.64-0.92)], whereas female gender [OR, 2.72 (95% CI 2.13-3.47)] was associated with a higher ACR adjusted for age systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the multiple logistic regression analysis. Therefore, children with OW/OB had 23% lower odds of having ACR ≥ III quartile and girls had more than two and half times the risk of having high ACR. Conclusions: Our results suggest that OW/OB is inversely associated with childhood albuminuria while female gender is positively associated. Whether the results can be explained by the increased physical activity in lean children should be the subject of future investigations. These results suggest that micro-albuminuria in children may not be a useful tool in the early identification of children at risk for future renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD). © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Salome P.,Paris Observatory | Guelin M.,Institut Universitaire de France | Downes D.,Institut Universitaire de France | Cox P.,Institut Universitaire de France | And 4 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

The radio-quiet quasar BR1202-0725 (z = 4.695) is a remarkable source with a bright northwest (NW) companion detected at submillimeter and radio wavelengths but invisible in the optical. In the absence of amplification by gravitational lensing, BR1202-0725 would be the most luminous binary CO and far-infrared (far-IR) source in the Universe. In this paper, we report observations with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer of BR1202-0725 in the redshifted emission of the CO(5-4) and (7-6) lines, the [CI]( 3P 2- 3P 1) line, a high angular resolution (0.3″ × 0.8″) 1.3 mm map of the rest-frame, far-IR dust continuum, and a search for the CO(11-10) line. We compare these results with recent ALMA data in the [CII] line. Both the quasar host galaxy and its NW companion are spatially resolved in the molecular line emission and the dust continuum. The CO profile of the NW companion is very broad with a full width at half maximum of ∼1000 ± 130 km s -1, compared to ∼360 ± 40 km s -1 for the quasar host galaxy to the southeast (SE). The difference in linewidths and center velocities, and the absence of any lens candidate or arc-like structure in the field, at any wavelength, show that the obscured NW galaxy and the SE quasar host galaxy cannot be lensed images of the same object. Instead, we find morphological and kinematic evidence for sub-structures in both the NW and SE sources. We interpret these results as strong indications that the BR1202-0725 complex is a group of young, interacting, and highly active starburst galaxies. © ESO, 2012.

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