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Agar C.,Laboratorium Algemene Klinische Chemie | De Groot P.G.,Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht | Meijers J.C.M.,University of Amsterdam
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Klinische Chemie en Laboratoriumgeneeskunde | Year: 2012

The antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is clinically characterized by thrombotic events or foetal loss and serologically by the presence of antibodies against phospholipid binding proteins. The antiphospholipid syndrome is diagnosed when there is persistent presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies in plasma and a history of thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity. Nowadays, it is widely accepted that β2-glycoprotein I is the major antigen for antiphospholipid antibodies. Recently, besides the existence of two completely different conformations, which give different results in blood clotting tests, a new function has been discovered for a thus far functionless protein. The progress on the structure and function of the β2-glycoprotein I have given new insights into the pathophysiology of the antiphospholipid syndrome and thereby created new opportunities for the development of alternative assays for the existing ones. A novel assay that discriminates between the conformations of β2-glycoprotein I will most likely be a breakthrough for the diagnosis and treatment of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

De Grouw P.L.M.,Laboratorium Algemene Klinische Chemie | Delzenne B.,Laboratorium Algemene Klinische Chemie | Grundel P.,Laboratorium Algemene Klinische Chemie | Heckman M.,Laboratorium Algemene Klinische Chemie | And 2 more authors.
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Klinische Chemie en Laboratoriumgeneeskunde | Year: 2011

In order to come to a well defined choice of replacement of the atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) various AAS systems were compared based on predefined criteria (user-friendliness, fastness, volume of patient materials tested, easiness of implementation and maintenance). Based on these criteria the choice was made for the ContrAA of Analytik Jena. One of the main advantages, compared to the other AAS systems, is the use of a Xenon-bulb which allows the rapid analysis of different elements in a single sample as well as analysis of rare elements. The ContrAA was evaluated with regard to analytical performance including the within run and total imprecision, the extent of carry-over, linearity and sensitivity. For all, the ContrAA scored well which explains its introduction in the laboratory to analyse current requests while implementation of assays for less frequently requested elements is ongoing.

De Grouw P.L.M.,Laboratorium Algemene Klinische Chemie | Raymakers R.A.P.,Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Klinische Chemie en Laboratoriumgeneeskunde | Year: 2010

ABC-genes represent a large family of transmembrane proteins, which are expressed in all living cells and are essential for energy-dependent transport. Mutations in ABC genes cause or contribute to many genetic disorders, for example cystic fibrosis. ABC-transporters are extensively studied for their role in the development of chemotherapeutical resistance. Over-expression results in increased cellular efflux for a specific drug, but also for other, structurally unrelated drugs referred to as multidrug resistance. Clinical studies with specific inhibitors, to increase intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutical compounds, are disappointing, because of redundancy in ABC-transporter expression in leukemic cells in AML. ABC-transporters are also broadly expressed in normal hematopoietic stem cells, strongly overlapping with leukemic stem cells. Furthermore, exposure to chemotherapy results in a rapid upregulation of ABC transporters. These insights can be exploited for future development of more adequate antileukemic treatment.

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