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Castel Guelfo di Bologna, Italy

Russo A.,Laboratorio Of Nanobiotechnologie Nabi | Russo A.,Laboratorio Of Biomeccanica Ed Innovazione Tecnologica | Bianchi M.,Laboratorio Of Nanobiotechnologie Nabi | Sartori M.,Laboratorio Of Biocompatibilita Innovazioni Tecnologiche E Terapie Avanzate Bitta | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine

The fascinating prospect to direct tissue regeneration by magnetic activation has been recently explored. In this study we investigate the possibility to boost bone regeneration in an experimental defect in rabbit femoral condyle by combining static magnetic fields and magnetic biomaterials. NdFeB permanent magnets are implanted close to biomimetic collagen/hydroxyapatite resorbable scaffolds magnetized according to two different protocols. Permanent magnet only or non-magnetic scaffolds are used as controls. Bone tissue regeneration is evaluated at 12 weeks from surgery from a histological, histomorphometric and biomechanical point of view. The reorganization of the magnetized collagen fibers under the effect of the static magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet produces a highly-peculiar bone pattern, with highly-interconnected trabeculae orthogonally oriented with respect to the magnetic field lines. In contrast, only partial defect healing is achieved within the control groups. We ascribe the peculiar bone regeneration to the transfer of micro-environmental information, mediated by collagen fibrils magnetized by magnetic nanoparticles, under the effect of the static magnetic field. These results open new perspectives on the possibility to improve implant fixation and control the morphology and maturity of regenerated bone providing “in site” forces by synergically combining static magnetic fields and biomaterials. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Iafisco M.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Iafisco M.,University of Bologna | Varoni E.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Di Foggia M.,University of Bologna | And 6 more authors.
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces

Inorganic nanosized drug carriers are a promising field in nanomedicine applied to cancer. Their conjugation with antibodies combines the properties of the nanoparticles themselves with the specific and selective recognition ability of the antibodies to antigens. Biomimetic carbonate-hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized; human IgGs, used as model antibodies, were coupled to these nanocrystals. The maximum loading amount, the interaction modelling, the preferential orientation and the secondary structure modifications were evaluated using theoretical models (Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich) spectroscopic (UV-Vis, Raman), calorimetric (TGA), and immunochemical techniques (ELISA, Western Blot). HA nanoparticles of about 30nm adsorbed human IgGs, in a dose-dependent, saturable and stable manner with micromolar affinity and adsorption capability around 2.3mg/m 2. Adsorption isotherm could be described by Langmuir-Freundlich model, and was due to both energetically homogeneous and heterogeneous binding sites on HA surface, mainly of electrostatic nature. Binding did not induce secondary structure modification of IgGs. A preferential IgG end-on orientation with the involvement of IgG Fc moiety in the adsorption seems most probable due to the steric hindrance of their Fab domains. Biomimetic HA nanocrystals are suitable substrates to produce nanoparticles which can be functionalized with antibodies for efficient targeted drug delivery to tumours. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Dallari D.,University of Bologna | Pignatti G.,University of Bologna | Stagni C.,University of Bologna | Giavaresi G.,Laboratorio Studi Preclinici e Chirurgici | And 4 more authors.

We retrospectively evaluated the postoperative results Of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients presenting with Crowe group IV dislocated hips. Overall, results were compared with regard to the type of osteotomy performed (Z or oblique) to define the correct indications for surgical technique and choice of prosthetic implant. Thirty-three subtrochanteric shortening and derotational osteotomies in primary THA were performed in 26 patients secondary to congenital hip dislocation. A Z osteotomy was performed in 14 cases and an oblique osteotomy in 19. The surgical approach was direct lateral, and surgery was aimed at restoring the anatomic hip center. Femoral and acetabular fixation was uncemented. The most used stem was the S-ROM (DePuy, Leeds, United Kingdom), and the couplings used were ceramic-ceramic (7 cases), ceramic-polyethylene (3 cases), metal-polyethylene (15 cases), and metal-metal (3 cases). Mean follow-up was 88±45 months. According to the Merle D'Aubigné score, the overall clinical results were good in 23 cases, satisfactory in 6, and fair in 4. Union of the osteotomy occurred in 97% of cases, and the mean time required for osteotomy union was 6±2 months without significant differences between Z and oblique osteotomies. At last follow-up, there was loosening of 1 cup and 1 stem, and revision was necessary. Twelve percent of patients experienced postoperative dislocation and 9% developed neuropraxia of the femoral nerve. The clinical and radiological results were similar in both groups, with a high rate of pain relief, an improvement in limb-length discrepancy, and reduced limping, leading to a smaller or no insole. Currently, the more complex Z osteotomy has been abandoned, because a modular stem prosthesis with metaphyseal sleeve allows the oblique osteotomy to be used with an easier and shorter surgical procedure. Source

Parra A.,S.S.D. Genetica Medica e Malattie Rare Ortopediche | Veraldi N.,Carbohydrate science Group | Locatelli M.,S.S.D. Genetica Medica e Malattie Rare Ortopediche | Fini M.,Laboratorio Studi Preclinici e Chirurgici | And 4 more authors.

Glycosaminoglycans were extracted from both young rabbit growth plate (GRP) and articular (ART) cartilage tissues and enzymatically treated to selectively eliminate chondroitin sulfates and hyaluronic acid. The procedure avoided any fractionation step that could enrich the extract with over-or under-sulfated species. Isolated heparan sulfate (HS) was characterized by mono-and bidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to quantify their specific structural features and/or by mass spectrometry to establish the disaccharide composition. Both GRP and ART HSs, despite differing in their yield (GRP at least 100 times greater than ART), exhibited a surprisingly high degree of sulfation. Quantitative two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence-NMR analysis of GRP HS revealed unusually high N-sulfated glucosamine and 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid contents, similar to heparin. The unique pentasaccharide sequence of the binding site for antithrombin was also detected in a significant amount. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of the enzymatic digests with a cocktail of heparin lyases of both cartilaginous HSs confirmed the NMR results. As well as the discovery of an unusual HS structure in the two different types of rabbit cartilage, the feasibility of the analytical method adopted here has been demonstrated within this study. Such a method can be used to isolate and analyze HS from both normal and pathologic tissues. Characterization of healthy and pathological HS structures will contribute to improve the understanding of diseases related to malfunctions of HS biosynthesis and/or metabolism. © 2011 The Author. Source

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