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Bravo F.,Arturo Prat University | Bravo F.,Laboratorio Referencial Norte | Lobos C.,Laboratorio Referencial Norte | Venegas K.,Laboratorio Referencial Norte | Benites J.,Arturo Prat University
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Four benzodiazepines flunitrazepam, nitrazepam, clonazepam, and alprazolam, have been analyzed from biological matrices by dual column gas chromatography using a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD) and a micro-electron capture detector (m-ECD). The recoveries of the four benzodiazepines spiked into human whole blood and plasma were 88.8 - 97.9 and 90.7 - 97.5%, respectively. The regression equations for the four benzodiazepines showed excellent linearity. The detection limits (LODs) were 0.14 - 0.95 ng/mL for whole blood and 0.13 - 0.93 ng/mL for plasma. The method is simple and sensitive for the determination of benzodiazepines in human whole blood and plasma, and may be useful in forensic science practice.


Bravo F.,Arturo Prat University | Bravo F.,Laboratorio Referencial Norte | Zambra C.,Arturo Prat University | Venegas K.,Laboratorio Referencial Norte | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society | Year: 2013

The consumption of antidepressant drugs has increased in these last years, leading to severe and lethal poisonings. In this work, analytical tools, namely GC/MSD and GC/NPD/iμECD, were used to identify and quantify several antidepressant drugs including amitriptyline, imipramine, sertraline, fluoxetine, and citalopram in forensic cases in the North of Chile during 2008-2011. Drugs were analyzed in biological arrays like blood. A solid phase extraction by Bond Elut Certify columns was applied in all these processes. Fluoxetine and sertraline were derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride. Prazepam was used as internal standard (IS). The limit of detection (LOD) in blood were 0.5 - 20.07 ng/mL. The average extraction rate was 89.39% in blood. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 3.6%, while the intra-day accuracy was < 5.5% and the inter-day was < 2.4%, referred to RSD. The procedures we have developed allow the quantification of drugs even at low therapeutic doses, a very important issue taking into account the nature of the analyzed arrays.


Bravo F.,Arturo Prat University | Bravo F.,Laboratorio Referencial Norte | Gonzalez D.,Arturo Prat University | Benites J.,Arturo Prat University
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society | Year: 2011

A rapid, selective, sensitive, and specific method is presented to simultaneously quantify morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), codeine, heroin, fentanyl, and methadone in human whole blood and plasma. The drugs were extracted with phosphate buffer at pH 6, followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and quantification by GC/MS with electron impact ionization using helium as carrier gas. Quantification was performed based on nalorphine as internal standard (IS). The specificity, linearity, intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy, and extraction recovery were fully evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.40 - 7.63 ng/mL for whole blood and 0.80 - 32.00 ng/mL for plasma. The method is fast, simple, and accurate, with the sensitivity and specificity required in forensic and clinical toxicology.

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