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Rego N.,Institute Pasteur Of Montevideo | Bianchi S.,Institute Pasteur Of Montevideo | Moreno P.,Institute Pasteur Of Montevideo | Moreno P.,Laboratorio Of Virologia Molecular | And 10 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2012

As an approach to determining the aetiology of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), we searched for a virus expressed in human CLL B-cells by combining high-throughput sequencing and digital subtraction. Pooled B-cell mRNA transcriptomes from five CLL patients and five healthy donors were sequenced with 454 Life Sciences technology. Human reads were excluded by BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) and BLAT (BLAST-like alignment tool) searches. Remaining reads were screened with BLAST against viral databases. Purified B-cells from two CLL patients, with and without stimulation by phorbol-esters, were sequenced using Illumina technology to achieve depth of sequencing. Burrows-Wheeler Aligner mapping and BLAST searches were used for the Illumina data. Pyrosequencing resulted in about 400 000 reads per sample. No viral candidate could be found. Illumina single-end sequencing for 115 cycles yielded an average of 26 ± 2·5 million filtered reads per sample, of which 2·2 ± 0·6 million remained unmapped to human references. BLAST searches of these reads against viral and human databases assigned nine reads to an Epstein-Barr virus origin, in one sample following phorbol-ester stimulation. Other reads showing a putative viral origin were dismissed after further analysis. Despite an in-depth analysis of the CLL transcriptome reaching more than 100 million sequences, we have not found evidence for a putative viral candidate in CLL. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Camorlinga-Ponce M.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social | Munoz L.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social | Fuentes-Panan E.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social | Fuentes-Panan E.,Laboratorio Of Virologia Molecular | Torres J.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Boletin Medico del Hospital Infantil de Mexico | Year: 2014

Helicobacter pylori is usually acquired during childhood and remains in the gastric mucosa for years, often lifelong if untreated. It can be concluded that the gastric mucosa of children actively responds to the presence of H. pylori. Current evidences suggest that whereas H. pylori infection rarely causes peptic ulcers or gastric atrophy in children, it seems to be associated with iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia; the evidence also suggests the infection may cause growth retardation. In contrast, H. pylori infection has been associated with a reduced risk of asthma and allergy in children and adults; also, epidemiological studies suggest that there is an inverse association between H. pylori infection and risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The gastric mucosa of children elicits a significant inflammatory response in the site of infection, with increased expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines, and increased epithelial proliferation. This response may partly be responsible for the required “immune training” needed to protect for the development of esophageal cancer, asthma, allergy or even diabetes later in life. The response may as well be associated with growth retardation, iron deficiency and increased risk for enteric infections. It then seems that our co-evolution with H. pylori has rendered benefits for human health making clear that this relationship is complex and the decision to eradicate the infection should be taken with caution. © 2013, Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México.

De Castro Cortes L.M.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Molecular E Doencas Endemicas | De Souza Pereira M.C.,Laboratorio Of Ultraestrutura Celular | De Oliveira F.O.R.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Molecular E Doencas Endemicas | De Oliveira F.O.R.,Laboratorio Of Ultraestrutura Celular | And 7 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2012

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease and an important public health issue. Glycosaminoglycan ligands in Leishmania parasites are potential targets for new strategies to control this disease. We report the subcellular distribution of heparin-binding proteins (HBPs) in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and specific biochemical characteristics of L. (V.) braziliensis HBPs. Promastigotes were fractionated, and flagella and membrane samples were applied to HiTrap Heparin affinity chromatography columns. Heparin-bound fractions from flagella and membrane samples were designated HBP F f and HBP M f, respectively. Fraction HBP F f presented a higher concentration of HBPs relative to HBP M f, and SDS-PAGE analyses showed 2 major protein bands in both fractions (65 and 55 kDa). The 65 kDa band showed gelatinolytic activity and was sensitive to inhibition by 1,10-phenanthroline. The localization of HBPs on the promastigote surfaces was confirmed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor analysis by binding the parasites to a heparin-coated sensor chip; that was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by pre-incubating the parasites with variable concentrations of heparin, thus indicating distinct heparin-binding capacities for the two fractions. In conclusion, protein fractions isolated from either the flagella or membranes of L. (V.) braziliensis promastigotes have characteristics of metallo-proteinases and are able to bind to glycosaminoglycans. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Gusatti C.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Medeiros A.F.R.,Setor de Hepatites Virais | Gomes S.A.,Laboratorio Of Virologia Molecular | Silva M.S.N.,Lutheran University of Brazil | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920. © 2015 Gusatti et al.

Soares C.C.,Laboratorio Of Virologia Molecular | Georg I.,IPEC Inc | Lampe E.,Laboratorio Of Referencia Nacional Para Hepatites Virais | Lewis L.,Laboratorio Of Referencia Nacional Para Hepatites Virais | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are more vulnerable to blood-borne infections and/or sexually-transmitted infections (STI). This study was conducted to estimate the prevalences of mono and co-infections of HIV-1 and other blood-borne/STIs in a sample of MSM in Campinas, Brazil. Methods: Responding Driven Sampling (RDS) was used for recruitment of MSM. Serum samples collected from 558 MSM were analyzed for the presence of serological markers for HIV-1, HBV, HCV, HTLV, HPV-16/18, and T. pallidum infections. Results: The highest prevalences of infection in serum samples were found for HPV-16 and 18 (31.9% and 20.3%, respectively). Approximately 8% of the study population showed infection with HIV-1, and within that group, 27.5% had recently become infected with HIV-1. HBV infection and syphilis were detected in 11.4% and 10% of the study population, respectively, and the rates of HTLV and HCV infection were 1.5% and 1%, respectively. With the exception of HTLV, all other studied infections were usually found as co-infections rather then mono-infections. The rates of co-infection for HCV, HPV-18, and HIV-1 were the highest among the studied infections (100%, 83%, and 85%, respectively). Interestingly, HTLV infection was usually found as a mono-infection in the study group, whereas HCV was found only as a co-infection. Conclusions: The present findings highlight the need to educate the MSM population concerning their risk for STIs infections and methods of prevention. Campaigns to encourage vaccination against HBV and HPV could decrease the rates of these infections in MSM. © 2014 Soares et al.

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