Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem

Corumbá, Brazil

Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem

Corumbá, Brazil
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Bianchi R.C.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Bianchi R.C.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem | Gatti A.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Mendes S.L.,Federal University of Espirito Santo
Zoologia | Year: 2011

This study identifies the food habits of the margay, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821), and the jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilare, 1803), in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We determined the diet of both species by the analysis of scats. Fecal samples were collected from April 1995 to September 2000 and identified based on the presence of hairs that were ingested during self-grooming. Scats were oven-dried and washed on a sieve, and the screened material was identified using a reference collection. Of the 59 fecal samples examined, 30 were confirmed to be from the margay and nine of them from the jaguarundi. Mammals were the most consumed items in the diet of the margay, occurring in 77% of the fecal samples, followed by birds (53%) and reptiles (20%). Among the mammals consumed, marsupials (Didelphimorphia) were the most common item (66%). In the diet of the jaguarundi, birds were the most consumed items and occurred in 55% of the fecal samples; mammals and reptiles occurred in 41% and in 17% of the fecal samples, respectively. From this work we conclude that the margay and jaguarundi fed mainly upon small vertebrates in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve. Although sample sizes are therefore insufficient for quantitative comparisons, margays prey more frequently upon arboricolous mammals than jaguarundis, which in turn prey more frequently upon birds and reptiles than margays. This seems to reflect a larger pattern throughout their geographic range. © 2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia.

PubMed | Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Catholic University Dom Bosco, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz and Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2015

The transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Brazilian Pantanal region has been studied during the last decade. Although considerable knowledge is available regarding the mammalian hosts infected by T. cruzi in this wetland, no studies have investigated its vectors in this region. This study aimed to investigate the presence of sylvatic triatomine species in different habitats of the Brazilian Pantanal region and to correlate their presence with the occurrences of vertebrate hosts and T. cruzi infection.The fieldwork involved passive search by using light traps and Noireau traps and active search by visual inspection. The light traps were placed at five selected points along forested areas for seven nights during each of the nine excursions. At each point where a light trap was set, eight Noireau traps were placed in palm trees and bromeliads.In all, 88 triatomine bugs were collected: two and one individuals from light traps and Noireau traps, respectively; three from peridomestic areas; 23 in coati nests; and 59 in thornbird nests. In this study, active search in microhabitats showed higher efficiency than passive search, since 95% of the triatomine bugs were caught in nests. Further, triatomine bugs were only found to be infected by T. cruzi in coati nests.Coati nests might act as a point of convergence and dispersion for triatomine bugs and mammal hosts infected by T. cruzi, thereby playing an important role in the sylvatic cycle of T. cruziin the Pantanal region.

Campos Z.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem | Magnusson W.E.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Marques V.,Instituo Chico Mendes de Conservacao de Biodiversidade
Herpetologica | Year: 2013

We estimated growth rates of Dwarf Caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus) with capture- recapture data from 40 individuals collected over 6 yr in streams surrounding the Brazilian Pantanal, near the southern limit of the species' distribution. Repeated recaptures of eight animals indicate that withinindividual variation is much greater than between-individual variation, possibly reflecting climatic influences. Growth rates of juveniles increased linearly until individuals were about 28 cm snout-vent length (SVL), and then growth rates decreased gradually after attaining that size. The rate of decrease, however, differed between males and females. Data for 30 juveniles with known age were used to validate the growth curve based on the growth rate-on-size analysis. The length of the smallest female recorded nesting (SVL=60 cm) allowed us to estimate the age at first reproduction to be about 8 yr for females. Our data do not support our initial hypothesis that P. palpebrosus would have slow growth rates and relatively old age at first reproduction, as has been suggested for Paleosuchus trigonatus. © 2013 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

Leuchtenberger C.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Leuchtenberger C.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem | Magnusson W.E.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Mourao G.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Territoriality carries costs and benefits, which are commonly affected by the spatial and temporal abundance and predictability of food, and by intruder pressure. Giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) live in groups that defend territories along river channels during the dry season using chemical signals, loud vocalizations and agonistic encounters. However, little is known about the territoriality of giant otters during the rainy season, when groups leave their dry season territories and follow fish dispersing into flooded areas. The objective of this study was to analyze long-term territoriality of giant otter groups in a seasonal environment. The linear extensions of the territories of 10 giant otter groups were determined based on locations of active dens, latrines and scent marks in each season. Some groups overlapped the limits of neighboring territories. The total territory extent of giant otters was correlated with group size in both seasons. The extent of exclusive territories of giant otter groups was negatively related to the number of adults present in adjacent groups. Territory fidelity ranged from 0 to 100%between seasons. Some groupsmaintained their territory for long periods, which demanded constant effort in marking and re-establishing their territories during the wet season. These results indicate that the defense capacity of groups had an important role in the maintenance of giant otter territories across seasons, which may also affect the reproductive success of alpha pairs. © 2015 Leuchtenberger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Campos Z.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem | Muniz F.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Desbiez A.L.J.,Royal Zoological Society of Scotland | Magnusson W.E.,National Institute of Amazonian Research
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2016

Nests of Schneider’s dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus trigonatus, were located in the forests around three streams that drain into the Xingu River, Brazilian Amazonia, in October 2014. Camera traps were installed at the edge of four nests to document predators and female parental care. At two nests, females unsuccessfully defended their nests against one or more giant armadillos, Priodontes maximus, and nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus. Both armadillo species responded to the attack by fleeing and returning on the opposite side of the nest by going around the tree under which the nest was located. Giant armadillos have never before been recorded consuming caiman eggs and their diet has been described as consisting mostly of ants and termites. Another species of armadillo, Cabassous unicinctus, was also registered digging into a nest and probably consuming eggs, though it is generally considered to be primarily insectivorous. A tayra (Eira barbara), lizard (Tupinambis teguixin) and coati (Nasua nasua) were also registered taking eggs from nests during the day, but we obtained no registers of nest defence by caimans during the day. The three nests were attacked after 60 days of incubation, when the eggs were well developed. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

PubMed | Laboratorio Of Biologia Of Tripanosomatideos, Laboratorio Nacional E Internacional Of Referencia Em Taxonomia Of Triatomineos, Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem, Federal University of Paraiba and Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of vector ecology : journal of the Society for Vector Ecology | Year: 2015

The coati (Nasua nasua, Carnivora) is a medium-sized mammal common in the Pantanal of Brazil. Unlike most mammals, coatis construct arboreal nests used for resting and reproduction. In this region, the coati is an important host of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. There are two possible routes through coatis can be infected by T. cruzi: the oral route or the vectorial route. However, the relative importance of each of these routes in the infection of coatis and its role in the sylvatic cycle of the parasite are unknown. Our objectives were to investigate: (i) whether coati nests were infested by triatomine bugs, (ii) what species were frequent in the nests, (iii) whether the triatomines in nests were infected by T. cruzi, and (iv) what were the food resources of these triatomines. Eight of the 24 nests sampled were infested with triatomines, a total of 37 specimens of at least two species (Rhodnius stali and Triatoma sordida). In one nest, R. stali and T. sordida co-occurred and both fed on multiple resources, including coatis. This is the first report of triatomines occurring in arboreal nests of coatis. The co-occurrence of two different genera of triatomine vectors and coatis within the limited space of the coati nests provide multiple opportunities for the exchange of the protozoan parasite through both the vectorial and oral transmission routes.

Rheingantz M.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Leuchtenberger C.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem | Zucco C.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Fernandez F.A.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Tropical Ecology | Year: 2016

Circadian use of time is an important, but often neglected, part of an animal's niche. We compared the activity patterns of the Neotropical otter Lontra longicaudis in two different areas in Brazil using camera traps placed at the entrance of holts. We obtained 58 independent photos in the Atlantic Forest (273 camera trap-days) and 46 photos in Pantanal (300 camera trap-days). We observed different kernel density probabilities on these two areas (45.6% and 14.1% overlap between the 95% and 50% density isopleths respectively). We observed the plasticity in Neotropical otter activity behaviour with different activity patterns in the two areas. In the Pantanal, the Neotropical otter selected daylight (Ivlev = 0.23) and avoided night (Ivlev = -0.44), while in the Atlantic Forest it selected dawn (Ivlev = 0.24) and night (Ivlev = 0.14), avoiding daylight (Ivlev = -0.33). We believe that this pattern can be due to human activity or shifts in prey activity. © Cambridge University Press 2016.

Ri-os-Uzeda B.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Ri-os-Uzeda B.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Ri-os-Uzeda B.,Amigos y Amigos | Mourao G.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem
ORYX | Year: 2012

Aerial surveys have been used successfully to estimate vertebrate populations in open habitats. The marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus, categorized as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, lives in such habitats and is suitable for aerial counting because it is conspicuous. This species, the largest South American deer, is native to Argentina, Boliva, Brazil, Paraguay and Peru but no reliable information has previously been available on its populations in Bolivia. From May to August 2007 we conducted aerial transects to survey marsh deer in three large areas of savannah. We used a modified mark-recapture method to improve the accuracy of the counts and estimated density and abundance. The corrected, estimated density of the marsh deer was 0.24 km-2 in the northern La Paz Department, 0.12 km-2 in Mamoré and 0.15 km-2 in Iténez. These densities are similar to the mean density of the species on other South American savannahs. This is the first large-scale survey of the marsh deer in Bolivia and the first to provide information about the density of the species in the Amazon. We recommend the creation of protected areas in these savannahs, and wildlife and domestic health programmes to conserve the marsh deer of this region. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.

de Sampaio e Paiva Camilo-Alves C.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem | de Miranda Mourao G.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem
Biotropica | Year: 2010

The goal of this study was to ascertain why the production of variable seediness is advantageous for Attalea phalerata palms. Our hypothesis was that variation reduces seed predation by the spiny rats Thrichomys pachyurus and Clyomys laticeps. Although there is a positive correlation between endocarp size and number of seeds, endocarps sometimes contain more or fewer seeds than expected; palms bluff about the number of seed per endocarp. Therefore, rats do not know how many seeds an endocarp contains. To model rats' predating behavior, we applied Charnov's Marginal Value Theorem. The model shows that rats attack endocarps only when the energy gain is higher than the energy available in the habitat. Hence, it is not advantageous to eat all the seeds inside an endocarp. This explains why 45 percent of forest endocarps and 35 percent of savanna endocarps were still viable after predation. We then applied the model to two simulated endocarp populations with less variability in the number of seeds per endocarp size and determined that viable diaspores after predation were reduced to 15 percent. With less variability, palms cannot bluff about the number of seeds inside endocarps and predators can predict accurately how many seeds they should try to eat. Uncertainty about the number of seeds diminished predation but gave selective advantage to multiseeded fruits. Therefore, the bluffing strategy would be evolutionarily stable only if it were counterbalanced by other forces. Otherwise, predators would win the bluffing game. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

Mourao G.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem | Tomas W.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem | Campos Z.,Laboratorio Of Vida Selvagem
Zoologia | Year: 2010

The jabiru stork, Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein, 1819), a large, long-legged wading bird occurring in lowland wetlands from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, is considered endangered in a large portion of its distribution range. We conducted aerial surveys to estimate the number of jabiru active nests in the Brazilian Pantanal (140,000 km2) in September of 1991-1993, 1998, 2000-2002, and 2004. Corrected densities of active nests were regressed against the annual hydrologic index (AHI), an index of flood extension in the Pantanal based on the water level of the Paraguay River. Annual nest density was a non-linear function of the AHI, modeled by the equation 6.5 · 10-8 · AHI1.99 (corrected r2 = 0.72, n = 7). We applied this model to the AHI between 1900 and 2004. The results indicate that the number of jabiru nests may have varied from about 220 in 1971 to more than 23,000 in the nesting season of 1921, and the estimates for our study period (1991 to 2004) averaged about 12,400 nests. Our model indicates that the inter-annual variations in flooding extent can determine dramatic changes in the number of active jabiru nests. Since the jabiru stork responds negatively to drier conditions in the Pantanal, direct human-induced changes in the hydrological patterns, as well as the effects of global climate change, may strongly jeopardize the population in the region. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia. All rights reserved.

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