Mendieta A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico |
Jimenez F.,Research Center en Biotecnologia Aplicada |
Garduno-Siciliano L.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Preclinica |
Mojica-Villegas A.,Laboratorio Of Toxicologia Preclinica |
And 9 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014
In the search for new potential hypolipidemic agents, the present study focused on the synthesis of 2-acyl phenols (6a-c and 7a-c) and their saturated side-chain alkyl phenols (4a-c and 5a-c), and on the evaluation of their hypolipidemic activity using a murine Tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemic protocol. The whole series of compounds 4-7 greatly and significantly reduced elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, with series 6 and 7 showing the greatest potency ever found in our laboratory. At the minimum dose (25 mg/kg/day), the latter compounds lowered cholesterol by 68-81%, LDL by 72-86%, and triglycerides by 59-80%. This represents a comparable performance than that shown by simvastatin. Experimental evidence and docking studies suggest that the activity of these derivatives is associated with the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Madrigal-Santillan E.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo |
Madrigal-Santillan E.,Laboratorio Of Genetica |
Morales-Gonzalez J.A.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo |
Vargas-Mendoza N.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo |
And 5 more authors.
Toxins | Year: 2010
Mycotoxins are produced mainly by the mycelial structure of filamentous fungi, or more specifically, molds. These secondary metabolites are synthesized during the end of the exponential growth phase and appear to have no biochemical significance in fungal growth and development. The contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem for the adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The toxic effect of the ingestion of mycotoxins in humans and animals depends on a number of factors including intake levels, duration of exposure, toxin species, mechanisms of action, metabolism, and defense mechanisms. In general, the consumption of contaminated food and feed with mycotoxin induces to neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect in humans and/or animals. The most significant mycotoxins in terms of public health and agronomic perspective include the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes, fumonisins, patulin, and the ergot alkaloids. Due to the detrimental effects of these mycotoxins, several strategies have been developed in order to reduce the risk of exposure. These include the degradation, destruction, inactivation or removal of mycotoxins through chemical, physical and biological methods. However, the results obtained with these methods have not been optimal, because they may change the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional values of food. Another alternative strategy to prevent or reduce the toxic effects of mycotoxins is by applying antimutagenic agents. These substances act according to several extra- or intracellular mechanisms, their main goal being to avoid the interaction of mycotoxins with DNA; as a consequence of their action, these agents would inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. This article reviews the main strategies used to control AFB 1 and ochratoxin A and contains an analysis of some antigenotoxic substances that reduce the DNA damage caused by these mycotoxins. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source
Hernandez-Ceruelos A.,Institute Ciencias Of La Salud |
Madrigal-Santillan E.,Institute Ciencias Of La Salud |
Madrigal-Santillan E.,Laboratorio Of Genetica |
Morales-Gonzalez J.A.,Institute Ciencias Of La Salud |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2010
Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert (Asteraceae), popularly known as chamomile, is a plant used in traditional medicine for various therapeutic purposes. Chamomile essential oil (CEO) is particularly known to inhibit the genotoxic damage produced by mutagens in mice somatic cells. The aim of this research was to determine the inhibitory potential of CEO on the genotoxic damage produced by daunorubicin (DAU) in mice germ cells. We evaluated the effect of 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg of essential oil on the rate of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induced in spermatogonia by 10 mg/kg of the mutagen. We found no genotoxicity of CEO, but detected an inhibition of SCE after the damage induced by DAU; from the lowest to the highest dose of CEO we found an inhibition of 47.5%, 61.9%, and 93.5%, respectively. As a possible mechanism of action, the antioxidant capacity of CEO was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method and ferric thiocyanate assays. In the first test we observed a moderate scavenging potential of the oil; nevertheless, the second assay showed an antioxidant capacity similar to that observed with vitamin E. In conclusion, we found that CEO is an efficient chemoprotective agent against the damage induced by DAU in the precursor cells of the germinal line of mice, and that its antioxidant capacity may induce this effect.© 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel. Source